How to format your references using the Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Randolph GJ. Immunology. No need to coax monocytes. Science 2011;332:1268–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Messina R, Ben-Abdallah P. Graphene-based photovoltaic cells for near-field thermal energy conversion. Sci Rep 2013;3:1383.
A journal article with 3 authors
Goossen LJ, Deng G, Levy LM. Synthesis of biaryls via catalytic decarboxylative coupling. Science 2006;313:662–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
He J, Sinues PM-L, Hollmén M, Li X, Detmar M, Zenobi R. Fingerprinting breast cancer vs. normal mammary cells by mass spectrometric analysis of volatiles. Sci Rep 2014;4:5196.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dooner DB. Kinematic Geometry of Gearing. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Raghavan NRS, Cafeo JA, editors. Product Research: The Art and Science Behind Successful Product Launches. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Reinhartz-Berger I. When Aspect-Orientation Meets Software Product Line Engineering. In: Reinhartz-Berger I, Sturm A, Clark T, Cohen S, Bettin J, editors. Domain Engineering: Product Lines, Languages, and Conceptual Models, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 83–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal.

Blog post
Fang J. Multitasking Alters Your Gray Matter. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. K-12 Education: Education Needs to Improve Oversight of Its 21st Century Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2017.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Smith C. The affect of acculturation on obesity among foreign-born Asians residing in the United States. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bailey B. Lost and Found. New York Times 2017:BR22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHong Kong Physiotherapy Journal
AbbreviationHong Kong Physiother. J.
ISSN (print)1013-7025
ScopePhysical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

Other styles