How to format your references using the Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service RF. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY: Element 107 Leaves the Table Unturned. Science 2000;289:1270.
A journal article with 2 authors
Riser SC, Johnson KS. Net production of oxygen in the subtropical ocean. Nature 2008;451:323–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Anderson B, Cole WW, Barrett SCH. Botany: specialized bird perch aids cross-pollination. Nature 2005;435:41–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sasaki S, De Franceschi S, Elzerman JM, van der Wiel WG, Eto M, Tarucha S, et al. Kondo effect in an integer-spin quantum dot. Nature 2000;405:764–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopp V. Grundlagen der Life Sciences. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2000.
An edited book
Hao Y, Liu J, Wang Y-P, Cheung Y-M, Yin H, Jiao L, et al., editors. Computational Intelligence and Security: International Conference, CIS 2005, Xi’an, China, December 15-19, 2005, Proceedings, Part II. vol. 3802. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Rhee HS, Jeong IR, Byun JW, Lee DH. Difference Set Attacks on Conjunctive Keyword Search Schemes. In: Jonker W, Petković M, editors. Secure Data Management: Third VLDB Workshop, SDM 2006, Seoul, Korea, September 10-11, 2006. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006, p. 64–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Hong Kong Physiotherapy Journal.

Blog post
Andrew D. 15 Healthy Eating Habits That Work, According To Science. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Department of Education: Key Aspects of the Federal Direct Loan Program’s Cost Estimates. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bradford J. Commutative endomorphism rings of simple abelian varieties over finite fields. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Urbina I. A Renegade Trawler, Chased by Eco-Vigilantes. New York Times 2015:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleHong Kong Physiotherapy Journal
AbbreviationHong Kong Physiother. J.
ISSN (print)1013-7025
ScopePhysical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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