How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knudsen, E. I. (2002). Instructed learning in the auditory localization pathway of the barn owl. Nature 417, 322–328.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hom, E. F. Y., and Murray, A. W. (2014). Plant-fungal ecology. Niche engineering demonstrates a latent capacity for fungal-algal mutualism. Science 345, 94–98.
A journal article with 3 authors
Raff, M. C., Whitmore, A. V., and Finn, J. T. (2002). Axonal self-destruction and neurodegeneration. Science 296, 868–871.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mohamed, N.-V., Plouffe, V., Rémillard-Labrosse, G., Planel, E., and Leclerc, N. (2014). Starvation and inhibition of lysosomal function increased tau secretion by primary cortical neurons. Sci. Rep. 4, 5715.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Abner, D. J. (2010). The ETF Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Filipe, J., and Cordeiro, J. eds. (2011). Enterprise Information Systems: 12th International Conference, ICEIS 2010, Funchal-Madeira, Portugal, June 8-12, 2010, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Proto, M., Malandrino, O., and Supino, S. (2013). “The Implementation of Integrated Management System in Agri-Food SMEs,” in Product-Oriented Environmental Management Systems (POEMS): Improving Sustainability and Competitiveness in the Agri-Food Chain with Innovative Environmental Management Tools, eds. R. Salomone, M. T. Clasadonte, M. Proto, and A. Raggi (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands), 89–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015). Elephant Seals Shed Mercury Along With Their Fur. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979). Review of HEW Guidelines for Acquiring Automatic Data Processing Systems Under the Social Security Act. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pelletier, J. M. (2017). Effects of Data Breaches on Sector-Wide Systematic Risk in Financial, Technology, Healthcare and Services Sectors.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2016). Dodgers’ Rookie Manager Learns, and Acts, Quickly. New York Times, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knudsen, 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Knudsen, 2002; Hom and Murray, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hom and Murray, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Mohamed et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering
AbbreviationFront. Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1662-453X
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience

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