How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kawamura, Y. (2014). Phase synchronization between collective rhythms of fully locked oscillator groups. Sci. Rep. 4, 4832.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chakravarti, A., and Little, P. (2003). Nature, nurture and human disease. Nature 421, 412–414.
A journal article with 3 authors
Takeuchi, Y., Yoshizaki, G., and Takeuchi, T. (2004). Biotechnology: surrogate broodstock produces salmonids. Nature 430, 629–630.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Tomoda, M., Dehoux, T., Iwasaki, Y., Matsuda, O., Gusev, V. E., and Wright, O. B. (2014). Nanoscale mechanical contacts mapped by ultrashort time-scale electron transport. Sci. Rep. 4, 4790.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
James, L. (2014). Sustainability Footprints in SMEs. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Barral, J., and Seuret, S. eds. (2010). Recent Developments in Fractals and Related Fields. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser.
A chapter in an edited book
Cellier, P., Charnois, T., Plantevit, M., and Crémilleux, B. (2010). “Recursive Sequence Mining to Discover Named Entity Relations,” in Advances in Intelligent Data Analysis IX: 9th International Symposium, IDA 2010, Tucson, AZ, USA, May 19-21, 2010. Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science., eds. P. R. Cohen, N. M. Adams, and M. R. Berthold (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 30–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Curbing Cow Burps Could Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988). Use of Civilian Agencies’ Aircraft for Passenger Transportation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lewis, P. A. (2012). Love and hate: The study of school principals moving from job motivation to job frustration.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, C. (2008). Cortlandt to Offer Plan To Lower Fuel Oil Costs. New York Times, WE6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kawamura, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Chakravarti and Little, 2003; Kawamura, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chakravarti and Little, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Tomoda et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering
AbbreviationFront. Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1662-453X
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience

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