How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Buat, V. (2015). Astrophysics: Dust-poor galaxies at early times. Nature 522, 422–423.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ims, R. A., and Andreassen, H. P. (2000). Spatial synchronization of vole population dynamics by predatory birds. Nature 408, 194–196.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ren, A., Rajashankar, K. R., and Patel, D. J. (2012). Fluoride ion encapsulation by Mg2+ ions and phosphates in a fluoride riboswitch. Nature 486, 85–89.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Engler, A. J., Humbert, P. O., Wehrle-Haller, B., and Weaver, V. M. (2009). Multiscale modeling of form and function. Science 324, 208–212.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goria, S. (2017). Methods and Tools for Creative Competitive Intelligence. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pleyer, U. (2009). Uveitis and Immunological Disorders. , ed. J. V. Forrester Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mehlotra, R. K., and Zimmerman, P. A. (2006). “Resistance to Antimalarial Drugs: Parasite and Host Genetic Factors,” in Malaria: Genetic and Evolutionary Aspects Emerging Infectious Diseases of the 21st Century., ed. P. Arese (Boston, MA: Springer US), 81–124.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. (2017). Early Universe Discovery Might Help Explain How Galaxies Got So Big So Quickly. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009). Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Fiscal Year 2009 Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Buckley, K. M. (2008). Diversity and evolution of 185/333, an immune -related gene family from the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Photographs by GEORGE ETHEREDGE for THE NEW YORK TIMES (2017). Fire Escapes. New York Times, RE15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Buat, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Ims and Andreassen, 2000; Buat, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ims and Andreassen, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Engler et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering
AbbreviationFront. Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1662-453X
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience

Other styles