How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Clary, D. C. (2013). Chemistry. 100 years of atomic theory. Science 341, 244–245.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wikelski, M., and Thom, C. (2000). Marine iguanas shrink to survive El Niño. Nature 403, 37–38.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hathaway, D. H., Upton, L., and Colegrove, O. (2013). Giant convection cells found on the Sun. Science 342, 1217–1219.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Helenius, J., Brouhard, G., Kalaidzidis, Y., Diez, S., and Howard, J. (2006). The depolymerizing kinesin MCAK uses lattice diffusion to rapidly target microtubule ends. Nature 441, 115–119.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walter, R. J. (1998). Practical Compliance with the EPA Risk Management Program. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Hoffmann Davis, J. ed. (2016). Discourse and Disjuncture between the Arts and Higher Education. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US.
A chapter in an edited book
Clerbout, N., and Rahman, S. (2015). “The Dialogical Take on the Axiom of Choice, and Its Translation into CTT,” in Linking Game-Theoretical Approaches with Constructive Type Theory: Dialogical Strategies, CTT demonstrations and the Axiom of Choice SpringerBriefs in Philosophy., ed. S. Rahman (Cham: Springer International Publishing), 53–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2015). Stem Cell Treatment Used To Cure Age-Related Blindness. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999). Major Management Challenges and Program Risks: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gates, D. A. (2017). Best Practices and Strategies for Financial Literacy in Faith-Based Organizations.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Schwartz, J., and Schlossberg, T. (2016). Little Debating a Climate Divide. New York Times, D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Clary, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Wikelski and Thom, 2000; Clary, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wikelski and Thom, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Helenius et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering
AbbreviationFront. Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1662-453X
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience

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