How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Anthes, E. (2014). Ageing: Live faster, die younger. Nature 508, S16-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chisholm, J. R., and Kelley, R. (2001). Worms start the reef-building process. Nature 409, 152.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pascalis, O., de Haan, M., and Nelson, C. A. (2002). Is face processing species-specific during the first year of life? Science 296, 1321–1323.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
El-Halawany, A. M., El Dine, R. S., El Sayed, N. S., and Hattori, M. (2014). Protective effect of Aframomum melegueta phenolics against CCl₄-induced rat hepatocytes damage; role of apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokines inhibition. Sci. Rep. 4, 5880.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Will, H. (2011). »Sei naiv und mach’ ein Experiment«: Feodor Lynen. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Ventura, H. O. ed. (2016). Pharmacologic Trends of Heart Failure. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Maynard, A. E., and Greenfield, P. M. (2005). “An Ethnomodel of Teaching and Learning,” in Learning in Cultural Context: Family, Peers, and School International and Cultural Psychology Series., ed. M. I. Martini (Boston, MA: Springer US), 75–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015). Electric Motorways Could Charge Electric Cars On The Go. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2013). Health Care Workforce: Federally Funded Training Programs in Fiscal Year 2012. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nolan, S. A. (2010). Ecopoetry and ecocentrism: The poetics of Wallace Stevens and William Carlos Williams.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kanter, J., and Wolgelenter, M. (2017). E.U. Leader Jokes About English’s Decline. New York Times, A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Anthes, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Anthes, 2014; Chisholm and Kelley, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chisholm and Kelley, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (El-Halawany et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering
AbbreviationFront. Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1662-453X
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience

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