How to format your references using the Frontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Frontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Grillner, S. (2011). Neuroscience. Human locomotor circuits conform. Science 334, 912–913.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bianchi, M. E., and Manfredi, A. A. (2009). Immunology. Dangers in and out. Science 323, 1683–1684.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dick, H. J. B., Lin, J., and Schouten, H. (2003). An ultraslow-spreading class of ocean ridge. Nature 426, 405–412.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sardanyés, J., Simó, C., Martínez, R., Solé, R. V., and Elena, S. F. (2014). Variability in mutational fitness effects prevents full lethal transitions in large quasispecies populations. Sci. Rep. 4, 4625.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gupta, S. K. (2010). Modern Hydrology and Sustainable Water Development. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Scháfer, E., and Nagy, F. eds. (2006). PHOTOMORPHOGENESIS IN PLANTS AND BACTERIA. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Franch, X., Quer, C., Renault, S., Guerlain, C., and Palomares, C. (2013). “Constructing and Using Software Requirement Patterns,” in Managing Requirements Knowledge, eds. W. Maalej and A. K. Thurimella (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer), 95–116.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Frontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2016). A Teenager May Help NASA Decide Where To Land Its Next Mars Rover. IFLScience. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002). Telecommunications: Better Coordination and Enhanced Accountability Needed to Improve Spectrum Management. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Small, C. R. (2013). An investigation on the effect(s) of different modes of intervention for weight management on HDL-cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol production among United States veterans.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017). Film Series. New York Times, C23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Grillner, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Bianchi and Manfredi, 2009; Grillner, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bianchi and Manfredi, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Sardanyés et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleFrontiers in Neuromorphic Engineering
AbbreviationFront. Neurosci.
ISSN (online)1662-453X
ScopeGeneral Neuroscience

Other styles