How to format your references using the Geoarchaeology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoarchaeology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ledford, H. (2007). Turning back the clock. Nature, 445, 249.
A journal article with 2 authors
Churchman, L. S., & Weissman, J. S. (2011). Nascent transcript sequencing visualizes transcription at nucleotide resolution. Nature, 469, 368–373.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moon-van der Staay, S. Y., De Wachter, R., & Vaulot, D. (2001). Oceanic 18S rDNA sequences from picoplankton reveal unsuspected eukaryotic diversity. Nature, 409, 607–610.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Lo, J. C., Wang, Y., Tumanov, A. V., Bamji, M., Yao, Z., Reardon, C. A., Getz, G. S., & Fu, Y.-X. (2007). Lymphotoxin beta receptor-dependent control of lipid homeostasis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316, 285–288.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hopkins, B. R. (2015). The Law of Tax-Exempt Organizations. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lendeckel, U., & Hooper, N. M. (Eds.). (2009). Viral Proteases and Antiviral Protease Inhibitor Therapy: Proteases in Biology and Disease (Vol. 8). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Wiers-Jenssen, J. (2008). Career Impacts of Student Mobility. In Å. Gornitzka & L. Langfeldt (Eds.), Borderless Knowledge: Understanding the “New” Internationalisation of Research and Higher Education in Norway (pp. 79–101). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoarchaeology.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2014, October 29). Jaguar Tastes The Hallucinogenic Effects Of Yage. IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1988). Air Traffic Control: Efforts to Expand the New York Terminal Area Automation System (No. IMTEC-88-29). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ponder, K. (2017). Easing Stress by Helping Others: How Corporate Volunteer Programs Impact the Stress of Employees Within an Organization (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B. (2017, October 17). A Generous Peek Behind the Curtain. New York Times, p. C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ledford, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Ledford, 2007; Churchman & Weissman, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Churchman & Weissman, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Moon-van der Staay, De Wachter, & Vaulot, 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Lo et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoarchaeology
ISSN (print)0883-6353
ISSN (online)1520-6548
Earth and Planetary Sciences (miscellaneous)

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