How to format your references using the Sleep Health: Journal of the National Sleep Foundation citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sleep Health: Journal of the National Sleep Foundation. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Accardi A. CELL SIGNALING. Lipids link ion channels and cancer. Science. 2015;349(6250):789-790.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hunt A, Evan G. Apoptosis. Till death us do part. Science. 2001;293(5536):1784-1785.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang QD, Gotthelf EV, Lang CC. A faint discrete source origin for the highly ionized iron emission from the Galactic Centre region. Nature. 2002;415(6868):148-150.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Piotrowski AM, Goldstein SL, Hemming SR, Fairbanks RG. Temporal relationships of carbon cycling and ocean circulation at glacial boundaries. Science. 2005;307(5717):1933-1938.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Focardi SM, Fabozzi FJ, Bali TG. Mathematical Methods for Finance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Gentili G. The Median Nerve: Motor Conduction Studies. (Di Napoli M, ed.). Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Ranawana R, Palade V. A Neuro-Genetic Framework for Multi-Classifier Design: An Application to Promoter Recognition in DNA Sequences. In: Jain LC, Palade V, Srinivasan D, eds. Advances in Evolutionary Computing for System Design. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer; 2007:71-94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sleep Health: Journal of the National Sleep Foundation.

Blog post
Fang J. New Species Of Catfish Named “Greedo” After Star Wars Bounty Hunter. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Key Federal Agencies Need to Address Potentially Duplicative Investments. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Magner KA. Evaluation of Admissions Criteria and Practices with Regards to Successful Online Learning Styles and Characteristics. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Porter J. Steve Dillon, 54, Comic Artist; Helped Create ‘Preacher.’ New York Times. October 24, 2016:A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSleep Health: Journal of the National Sleep Foundation
AbbreviationSleep Health
ISSN (print)2352-7218

Other styles