How to format your references using the Kidney International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Kidney International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Crim FF. Chemistry. Close encounters. Science 2001; 293: 2014–2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Treseder KK, Holden SR. Ecology. Fungal carbon sequestration. Science 2013; 339: 1528–1529.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Lee YK, Lee H, Park JY. Tandem-structured, hot electron based photovoltaic cell with double Schottky barriers. Sci. Rep. 2014; 4: 4580.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Spoor F, Bajpai S, Hussain ST et al. Vestibular evidence for the evolution of aquatic behaviour in early cetaceans. Nature 2002; 417: 163–166.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Stone R, Gutiérrez-Albilla JD. A Companion to Luis Buñuel. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1. Emmer M ed. Mathematics and Culture II: Visual Perfection: Mathematics and Creativity. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hawkins JN. The Predicament of the Quest for WCU Status and Seeking an Asian Flagship University. In: Douglass JA, ed. The New Flagship University: Changing the Paradigm from Global Ranking to National Relevancy. New York, NY: Palgrave Macmillan US, 2016, pp.115–138.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Kidney International.

Blog post
1. O`Callaghan J. Check Out This Cool Footage Of Dust Devils Tearing Across Mars. IFLScience 2017.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Next Generation Air Transportation System: Status of Systems Acquisition and the Transition to the Next Generation Air Transportation System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Stewart DA. Principals’ post-observation feedback and its influence on teacher professional growth at two Southern California Catholic high schools. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kishkovsky S. Russia: Ministry Takes Aim at a Human Rights Group. New York Times. October 14, 2014:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleKidney International
AbbreviationKidney Int.
ISSN (print)0085-2538
ISSN (online)1523-1755

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