How to format your references using the Kidney International citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Kidney International. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ramirez A. The making of a science evangelist. Science 2015; 348: 726.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Heyduk AF, Nocera DG. Hydrogen produced from hydrohalic acid solutions by a two-electron mixed-valence photocatalyst. Science 2001; 293: 1639–1641.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Prajeesh AG, Ashok K, Rao DVB. Falling monsoon depression frequency: a Gray-Sikka conditions perspective. Sci. Rep. 2013; 3: 2989.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1. Mower JP, Stefanović S, Young GJ et al. Plant genetics: gene transfer from parasitic to host plants. Nature 2004; 432: 165–166.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kumar V. Mobile Database Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
1. Biswas P, Duarte C, Langdon P et al. eds. A Multimodal End-2-End Approach to Accessible Computing. London: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Hodych O, Hushchyn K, Shcherbyna Y et al. SOM-Based Dynamic Image Segmentation for Sign Language Training Simulator. In: Yang J, Ginige A, Mayr HC, et al., eds. Information Systems: Modeling, Development, and Integration: Third International United Information Systems Conference, UNISCON 2009, Sydney, Australia, April 21-24, 2009. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2009, pp.29–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Kidney International.

Blog post
1. Andrew D. There’s No Such Thing As An ‘Addictive Personality’ – Here’s Why. IFLScience 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. ADP Budget: Analysis of HCFA’s Fiscal Year 1991 ADP Budget Request. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Tucker TN. Virtual K-12 leadership: A postmodern paradigm. 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Poniewozik J. Streaming at the Top of Her Lungs. New York Times. October 14, 2016:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleKidney International
AbbreviationKidney Int.
ISSN (print)0085-2538
ISSN (online)1523-1755

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