How to format your references using the International Journal of Surgery Open citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Surgery Open. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Renton P. Has the Higgs boson been discovered? Nature 2004;428:141–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Robert KA, Thompson MB. Sex determination. Viviparous lizard selects sex of embryos. Nature 2001;412:698–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Humayun M, Qin L, Norman MD. Geochemical evidence for excess iron in the mantle beneath Hawaii. Science 2004;306:91–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Ricci-Vitiani L, Pallini R, Biffoni M, Todaro M, Invernici G, Cenci T, et al. Tumour vascularization via endothelial differentiation of glioblastoma stem-like cells. Nature 2010;468:824–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Bai Q, Bai Y, Ruan W. Advances in Pipes and Pipelines. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
[1]
Dobretsov N, Kolchanov N, Rozanov A, Zavarzin G, editors. Biosphere Origin and Evolution. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Lin C-L, Mao C. Role of Sphingolipids in Non-melanoma Skin Cancer. In: Hannun YA, Luberto C, Mao C, Obeid LM, editors. Bioactive Sphingolipids in Cancer Biology and Therapy, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 107–22.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Surgery Open.

Blog post
[1]
Davis J. Scientists Genetically Engineer Yeast To Produce Morphine-Like Painkiller. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/scientists-genetically-engineer-yeast-produce-morphine-painkiller/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: An Audit Guide For Assessing Acquisition Risks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Meza J. A community outreach program for Latino immigrant families: Increasing service utilization. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Wines M. Asked for Data on Voters, States Give Trump Panel a Bipartisan ‘No.’ New York Times 2017:A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Surgery Open
AbbreviationInt. J. Surg. Open
ISSN (print)2405-8572
Scope

Other styles