How to format your references using the Sleep and Breathing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sleep and Breathing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jarrold MF (2000) The smallest fullerene. Nature 407:26–27
A journal article with 2 authors
Ozanne SE, Hales CN (2004) Lifespan: catch-up growth and obesity in male mice. Nature 427:411–412
A journal article with 3 authors
Whitfield CW, Cziko A-M, Robinson GE (2003) Gene expression profiles in the brain predict behavior in individual honey bees. Science 302:296–299
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Peng P, Chan SW-L, Shah GA, Jacobsen SE (2006) Plant genetics: increased outcrossing in hothead mutants. Nature 443:E8; discussion E8-9

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gray KA, Paschkewitz JJ (2016) Next Generation HALT and HASS. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Gómez-Uranga M, Zabala-Iturriagagoitia JM, Barrutia J (2016) Dynamics of Big Internet Industry Groups and Future Trends: A View from Epigenetic Economics. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Šalak A, Selecká M (2012) Effect of Base Materials and of Various Processing Methods on Mechanical and Some Special Properties of Manganese Steels. In: Selecká M (ed) Manganese in Powder Metallurgy Steels. Cambridge International Science Publishing Ltd., Cambridge, pp 72–129

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sleep and Breathing.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Why Do Dolphins and Whales Still Have Pelvic Bones? To Please the Ladies. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Federal Research: Guidance for Equipment Acquired Under Grants and Cooperative Agreements. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Klochko K (2009) An empirical re-evaluation of the boron isotope/pH proxy in marine carbonates. Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario B (2017) Ed Sheeran’s ‘Divide’ Breaks a Global Record. New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSleep and Breathing
AbbreviationSleep Breath.
ISSN (print)1520-9512
ISSN (online)1522-1709
ScopeClinical Neurology

Other styles