How to format your references using the Sleep and Breathing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sleep and Breathing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Berry B (2013) Teacherpreneurs: a bold brand of teacher leadership for 21st-century teaching and learning. Science 340:309–310
A journal article with 2 authors
Miniati F, Beresnyak A (2015) Self-similar energetics in large clusters of galaxies. Nature 523:59–62
A journal article with 3 authors
Khush RS, Leulier F, Lemaitre B (2002) Immunology. Pathogen surveillance--the flies have it. Science 296:273–275
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kullander K, Butt SJB, Lebret JM, et al (2003) Role of EphA4 and EphrinB3 in local neuronal circuits that control walking. Science 299:1889–1892

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schoukens J, Pintelon R, Rolain Y (2012) Mastering System Identification in 100 Exercises. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Afamasaga-Fuata’i K (2009) Concept Mapping in Mathematics: Research into Practice, 1st ed. Springer US, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Lam THW, Lee RST (2007) iJADE FreeWalker – An Intelligent Ontology Agent-based Tourist Guiding System. In: Lee RST, Loia V (eds) Computational Intelligence for Agent-based Systems. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 103–125

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sleep and Breathing.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Hubble Captures the Glowing Heart of a Spiral Galaxy. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1983) [Suitability of the MUMPS Language for Government Agencies]. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lamb BK (2015) A Comparison of Carbon Dioxide Emissions at a Roundabout and a Signalized Intersection in a Mid-Sized City. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira S (2017) Powerful Woman? Yes. ‘Feminist’? No. New York Times SR6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSleep and Breathing
AbbreviationSleep Breath.
ISSN (print)1520-9512
ISSN (online)1522-1709
ScopeClinical Neurology

Other styles