How to format your references using the Biomatter citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Biomatter. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Raizen MG. Comprehensive control of atomic motion. Science 2009; 324:1403–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Blatt R, Wineland D. Entangled states of trapped atomic ions. Nature 2008; 453:1008–15.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moeller S, Freiwald WA, Tsao DY. Patches with links: a unified system for processing faces in the macaque temporal lobe. Science 2008; 320:1355–9.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Nyman M, Bonhomme F, Alam TM, Rodriguez MA, Cherry BR, Krumhansl JL, Nenoff TM, Sattler AM. A general synthetic procedure for heteropolyniobates. Science 2002; 297:996–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baker WL, Marn MV, Zawada CC. The Price Advantage. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Wubbels T. Interpersonal Relationships in Education: An Overview of Contemporary Research. Rotterdam: SensePublishers; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Beer MD, Alboul L, Norling E, Wallis P. Using Agents in Virtual Environments to Assist Controllers to Manage Multiple Assets. In: Dignum F, Brom C, Hindriks K, Beer M, Richards D, editors. Cognitive Agents for Virtual Environments: First International Workshop, CAVE 2012, Held at AAMAS 2012, Valencia, Spain, June 4, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. page 55–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Biomatter.

Blog post
Hamilton K. What Hurts More: Childbirth Or Getting Kicked In The Balls? [Internet]. IFLScience2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Hispanic Employment: Best Practices Used by Selected Agencies and Companies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberson KL. Patient and Family Engagement Initiative: A Quantitative Causal-Comparative Analysis. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C. For the Self-Employed, a Year-Round System Will Smooth Tax Time. New York Times2008; :C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleBiomatter
ISSN (print)2159-2527
ISSN (online)2159-2535
ScopeBiomedical Engineering
General Medicine
Medicine (miscellaneous)

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