How to format your references using the Sleep and Biological Rhythms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sleep and Biological Rhythms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Shevach EM. Immunology. Regulating suppression. Science. 2008;322:202–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bhaskaran H, Russell R. Kinetic redistribution of native and misfolded RNAs by a DEAD-box chaperone. Nature. 2007;449:1014–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Gandy S, Naslund J, Nordstedt C. Alzheimer’s disease. Molecular consequences of presenilin-1 mutation. Nature. 2001;411:654–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Lee H-R, Lee K, Cho J, Choi Y-H, You C-Y, Jung M-H, et al. Spin-orbit torque in a bulk perpendicular magnetic anisotropy Pd/FePd/MgO system. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6548.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Kuo JB, Lin S-C. Low-Voltage SOI CMOS VLSI Devices and Circuits. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2002.
An edited book
1. Rocha Á, Correia AM, Adeli H, Reis LP, Mendonça Teixeira M, editors. New Advances in Information Systems and Technologies. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Haberdar H, Albayrak S. A Two-Stage Visual Turkish Sign Language Recognition System Based on Global and Local Features. In: Esposito F, Raś ZW, Malerba D, Semeraro G, editors. Foundations of Intelligent Systems: 16th International Symposium, ISMIS 2006, Bari, Italy, September 27-29, 2006 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 29–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sleep and Biological Rhythms.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Philae Lander Runs Out Of Battery And Enters Deep Sleep. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. EOS Data Policy: Questions Remain About U.S. Commercial Access. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992 Jun. Report No.: IMTEC-92-44.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Nevitt DS. Organic Geochemical Proxies as Indicators of Paleoenvironmental Conditions and Source Sediment Provenance in the Chenier Plain, Vermilion and Cameron Parishes, Louisiana, USA [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Brantley B. Theater; A New Angle on an Old Line. New York Times. 2017 Feb 15;AR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSleep and Biological Rhythms
AbbreviationSleep Biol. Rhythms
ISSN (print)1446-9235
ISSN (online)1479-8425
ScopePhysiology
Physiology (medical)
Neurology
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

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