How to format your references using the Sleep and Biological Rhythms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sleep and Biological Rhythms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Cardinale B. Ecology. Impacts of biodiversity loss. Science. 2012;336:552–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rhee HS, Pugh BF. Genome-wide structure and organization of eukaryotic pre-initiation complexes. Nature. 2012;483:295–301.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Álvarez GA, Suter D, Kaiser R. QUANTUM SIMULATION. Localization-delocalization transition in the dynamics of dipolar-coupled nuclear spins. Science. 2015;349:846–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Ebert AD, Yu J, Rose FF Jr, Mattis VB, Lorson CL, Thomson JA, et al. Induced pluripotent stem cells from a spinal muscular atrophy patient. Nature. 2009;457:277–80.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Naini FB. Facial Aesthetics. West Sussex, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Su F-C, Wang S-H, Yeh M-L, editors. 1st Global Conference on Biomedical Engineering & 9th Asian-Pacific Conference on Medical and Biological Engineering: October 9-12, 2014, Tainan, Taiwan. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kakas AC, Cohn D, Dasgupta S, Barto AG, Carpenter GA, Grossberg S, et al. Actions. In: Sammut C, Webb GI, editors. Encyclopedia of Machine Learning. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2010. p. 10–10.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sleep and Biological Rhythms.

Blog post
1. Davis J. One In Six Species At Risk From Climate Change. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Surface Transportation: Moving into the 21st Century. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 May. Report No.: RCED-99-176.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Truong T. Microfluidics-based system for high-throughput analysis of nitrite in harbor water [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly M. A Life of Advantage, Enhanced by the Will to Excel. New York Times. 1992 Jul 17;A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSleep and Biological Rhythms
AbbreviationSleep Biol. Rhythms
ISSN (print)1446-9235
ISSN (online)1479-8425
ScopePhysiology
Physiology (medical)
Neurology
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

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