How to format your references using the Sleep and Biological Rhythms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sleep and Biological Rhythms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Siegel JS. Chemistry. Driving the formation of molecular knots. Science. 2012;338:752–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Nair S, Schilling TF. Chemokine signaling controls endodermal migration during zebrafish gastrulation. Science. 2008;322:89–92.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Gardner TJ, Naef F, Nottebohm F. Freedom and rules: the acquisition and reprogramming of a bird’s learned song. Science. 2005;308:1046–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Schoenberg R, Kamber BS, Collerson KD, Moorbath S. Tungsten isotope evidence from approximately 3.8-Gyr metamorphosed sediments for early meteorite bombardment of the Earth. Nature. 2002;418:403–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Steele D. From Therapist to Coach. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Verbelen J-P, Vissenberg K, editors. The Expanding Cell. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Coccolini F, D’Amico G, Montori G, Catena F, Fraga G, Ansaloni L. Laparoscopy in Gynecologic Emergencies. In: Agresta F, Campanile FC, Anania G, Bergamini C, editors. Emergency Laparoscopy. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 55–71.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sleep and Biological Rhythms.

Blog post
1. Hamilton K. How To Make A Rocket That Can Shoot 700 Metres Using Sugar And Kitty Litter. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. DHS Science and Technology: Additional Steps Needed to Ensure Test and Evaluation Requirements Are Met. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Jun. Report No.: GAO-11-596.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Morrison GK. Self-reported, interview-assisted diet records underreport protein and energy intake in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Paulson M. ‘The Cher Show’ Is Set for Broadway. New York Times. 2017 Sep 28;C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSleep and Biological Rhythms
AbbreviationSleep Biol. Rhythms
ISSN (print)1446-9235
ISSN (online)1479-8425
ScopePhysiology
Physiology (medical)
Neurology
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

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