How to format your references using the Sleep and Biological Rhythms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sleep and Biological Rhythms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Zwier TS. Chemistry. Probing frozen molecular embraces. Science. 2012;335:668–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bermingham E, Dick C. Ecology and evolution. The Inga--newcomer or museum antiquity? Science. 2001;293:2214–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Boyd OS, Jones CH, Sheehan AF. Foundering lithosphere imaged beneath the southern Sierra Nevada, California, USA. Science. 2004;305:660–2.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Montes-Hugo M, Doney SC, Ducklow HW, Fraser W, Martinson D, Stammerjohn SE, et al. Recent changes in phytoplankton communities associated with rapid regional climate change along the western Antarctic Peninsula. Science. 2009;323:1470–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Marteel-Parrish AE, Abraham MA. Green Chemistry and Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2013.
An edited book
1. Wabnitz S, Eggleton BJ, editors. All-Optical Signal Processing: Data Communication and Storage Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sanz R, Bermejo J, López I, Gómez J. A Real-Time Agent System Perspective of Meaning and Sapience. In: Mayorga RV, Perlovsky LI, editors. Toward Artificial Sapience: Principles and Methods for Wise Systems. London: Springer; 2008. p. 61–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sleep and Biological Rhythms.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Studies Find Mysterious Link Between Native Americans And Indigenous Australasians [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. [Comments on Senate’s Liability for Special Charges and Taxes Related to Telephone Service]. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1987 May. Report No.: B-225123.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Roberson KL. Patient and Family Engagement Initiative: A Quantitative Causal-Comparative Analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Shear MD, Pear R. Former Obama Aides Lead Opposition to the Effort to Repeal the Health Law. New York Times. 2017 Jul 27;A18.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSleep and Biological Rhythms
AbbreviationSleep Biol. Rhythms
ISSN (print)1446-9235
ISSN (online)1479-8425
Physiology (medical)
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

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