How to format your references using the Sleep and Biological Rhythms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sleep and Biological Rhythms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Farr NL. Questioning placebo controls. Science. 2000;288:1747c.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Pujol B, Pannell JR. Reduced responses to selection after species range expansion. Science. 2008;321:96.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Sims DW, Andrews PL, Young JZ. Stomach rinsing in rays. Nature. 2000;404:566.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Wisotzki L, Bacon R, Brinchmann J, Cantalupo S, Richter P, Schaye J, et al. Author Correction: Nearly all the sky is covered by Lyman-α emission around high-redshift galaxies. Nature. 2018;

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Chin WC. Resistivity Modeling. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
1. Yen MT, editor. Vascular Lesions of the Orbit and Face: Imaging and Management. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Abdullah MH, Saboor A, Baig IA, Arshad M. Climate Change, Risk and Food Security: An Analysis of Wheat Crop in Pakistan. In: Nautiyal S, Schaldach R, Raju KV, Kaechele H, Pritchard B, Rao KS, editors. Climate Change Challenge (3C) and Social-Economic-Ecological Interface-Building: Exploring Potential Adaptation Strategies for Bio-resource Conservation and Livelihood Development. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 41–63.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sleep and Biological Rhythms.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Mating Market Theory: The Math Of One-Night Stands And Long-Term Relationships. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Information Security: Many NASA Missions-Critical Systems Face Serious Risks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 May. Report No.: AIMD-99-47.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Alexandre KM. Identifying mechanisms regulating Wnt signaling during postembryonic development [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Coscarelli J, Ryzik M, Sisario B. Anger, Lawsuits and Inquiry Follow Music Festival’s Failure. New York Times. 2017 May 21;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSleep and Biological Rhythms
AbbreviationSleep Biol. Rhythms
ISSN (print)1446-9235
ISSN (online)1479-8425
Physiology (medical)
Neuropsychology and Physiological Psychology

Other styles