How to format your references using the Apoptosis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Apoptosis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thompson SM (2005) Neuroscience. Matching at the synapse. Science 308:800–801
A journal article with 2 authors
Sanchez PA, Swaminathan MS (2005) Public health. Cutting world hunger in half. Science 307:357–359
A journal article with 3 authors
Aarts H, Custers R, Marien H (2008) Preparing and motivating behavior outside of awareness. Science 319:1639
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Kato H, Okazaki K, Iida T, et al (2013) Spt6 prevents transcription-coupled loss of posttranslationally modified histone H3. Sci Rep 3:2186

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Subramanian MN (2013) Plastics Additives and Testing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Banerjee S, Erçetin ŞŞ (2014) Chaos, Complexity and Leadership 2012. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Longo G, Montévil M (2014) Symmetry and Symmetry Breakings in Physics. In: Montévil M (ed) Perspectives on Organisms: Biological time, Symmetries and Singularities. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 121–136

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Apoptosis.

Blog post
Andrews R (2015) Sweden Plans To Become World’s First Fossil Fuel-Free Nation. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1993) Radio Marti. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zanulabe Din MO (2017) Engineered Synchrony of Bacterial Lysis and its Applications. Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2012) Racer Adds a Challenge: Obesity. New York Times B18

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApoptosis
ISSN (print)1360-8185
ISSN (online)1573-675X
ScopeCancer Research
Cell Biology
Clinical Biochemistry
Biochemistry, medical
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles