How to format your references using the Apoptosis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Apoptosis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wigley TML (2006) A combined mitigation/geoengineering approach to climate stabilization. Science 314:452–454
A journal article with 2 authors
Zhou Z, Bai Y (2007) Structural biology: analysis of protein-folding cooperativity. Nature 445:E16-7; discussion E17-8
A journal article with 3 authors
Lineweaver CH, Fenner Y, Gibson BK (2004) The galactic habitable zone and the age distribution of complex life in the Milky Way. Science 303:59–62
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Chung H-Y, Weinberger MB, Levine JB, et al (2007) Synthesis of ultra-incompressible superhard rhenium diboride at ambient pressure. Science 316:436–439

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prutchi D, Norris M (2004) Design and Development of Medical Electronic Instrumentation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Bogomolov F, Tschinkel Y (2005) Geometric Methods in Algebra and Number Theory. Birkhäuser, Boston, MA
A chapter in an edited book
Trkman P, Klun M (2015) Leveraging Social Media for Process Innovation. A Conceptual Framework. In: vom Brocke J, Schmiedel T (eds) BPM - Driving Innovation in a Digital World. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 59–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Apoptosis.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) New Study Says Beef 10x More Damaging To The Environment Than Chicken, Pork Or Dairy Foods. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Air Traffic Control: FAA Needs to Implement an Effective Testing Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Battaglia M (2015) Presenting a pluralized past: Assessing the efficacy of multivocal, bison-themed lesson units as a public education and outreach strategy for archaeology. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wasik JF (2016) Accelerators Lend Help to a Business Idea Trying to Catch Fire. New York Times B2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApoptosis
ISSN (print)1360-8185
ISSN (online)1573-675X
ScopeCancer Research
Cell Biology
Clinical Biochemistry
Biochemistry, medical
Pharmaceutical Science

Other styles