How to format your references using the Apoptosis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Apoptosis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Lerner LS (2000) Good and bad science in US schools. Nature 407:287–290
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Haynes BF, Verkoczy L (2014) AIDS/HIV. Host controls of HIV neutralizing antibodies. Science 344:588–589
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Meng F, Li X, Duan Y (2014) Chip-based ingroove microplasma with orthogonal signal collection: new approach for carbon-containing species detection through open air reaction for performance enhancement. Sci Rep 4:4803
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1.
Tachiwana H, Kagawa W, Shiga T, et al (2011) Crystal structure of the human centromeric nucleosome containing CENP-A. Nature 476:232–235

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Anderson RK (2012) Visual Data Mining. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
1.
Magnani L, Carnielli W, Pizzi C (2010) Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology: Abduction, Logic, and Computational Discovery. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Hicks GR (2005) Nuclear Import of Plant Proteins. In: Citovsky V (ed) Nuclear Import and Export in Plants and Animals. Springer US, Boston, MA, pp 61–82

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Apoptosis.

Blog post
1.
Hale T (2017) Investigation Gives Glimpse Into The Scale Of The Shark Fin Trade. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/investigation-gives-glimpse-into-the-scale-of-the-shark-fin-trade/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office (2010) Aviation Security: TSA Has Made Progress but Faces Challenges in Meeting the Statutory Mandate for Screening Air Cargo on Passenger Aircraft. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Schutt R (2010) Topics in model-based population inference. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Slotnik DE (2017) Kenny Sears, 83, Sharpshooting Forward for the Knicks. New York Times A28

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleApoptosis
AbbreviationApoptosis
ISSN (print)1360-8185
ISSN (online)1573-675X
ScopeCancer Research
Cell Biology
Clinical Biochemistry
Biochemistry, medical
Pharmaceutical Science
Pharmacology

Other styles