How to format your references using the Skin Pharmacology and Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Skin Pharmacology and Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Melcher D. Persistence of visual memory for scenes. Nature. 2001 Jul;412(6845):401.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dijk D-J, Skeldon AC. Biological rhythms: Human sleep before the industrial era. Nature. 2015 Nov;527(7577):176–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Joliveau E, Smith J, Wolfe J. Acoustics: tuning of vocal tract resonance by sopranos. Nature. 2004 Jan;427(6970):116.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zheng H, Smith RK, Jun Y-W, Kisielowski C, Dahmen U, Alivisatos AP. Observation of single colloidal platinum nanocrystal growth trajectories. Science. 2009 Jun;324(5932):1309–12.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bouvier J-M, Campanella OH. Extrusion Processing Technology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Felsenthal DS, Machover M, editors. Electoral Systems: Paradoxes, Assumptions, and Procedures. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Bartosz K. Numerical Methods for Evolution Hemivariational Inequalities. In: Han W, Migórski S, Sofonea M, editors. Advances in Variational and Hemivariational Inequalities: Theory, Numerical Analysis, and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015; pp 111–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Skin Pharmacology and Physiology.

Blog post
Hale T. This Church Has A Chandelier Made Entirely Of Human Bones [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Nov


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Energy Management: Technology Development Program Taking Action to Address Problems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez F. Grant proposal: Providing effective screening, training, and supervision for an at-risk youth mentoring program. 2010

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Loomis G. Baroque Opera at the Ambronay Festival. New York Times. 2012 Oct;0.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSkin Pharmacology and Physiology
AbbreviationSkin Pharmacol. Physiol.
ISSN (print)1660-5527
ISSN (online)1660-5535
General Medicine

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