How to format your references using the Skin Pharmacology and Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Skin Pharmacology and Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sohn E. Animal models: Dogged pursuit. Nature. 2014 Nov;515(7528):S172-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tilman D, Snell-Rood EC. Ecology: Diversity breeds complementarity. Nature. 2014 Nov;515(7525):44–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yamashiro H, Isomura N, Sakai K. Bloom of the cyanobacterium Moorea bouillonii on the gorgonian coral Annella reticulata in Japan. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug;4:6032.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Zhou J, Jia W, Huang C-B, Hess RF. The effect of unilateral mean luminance on binocular combination in normal and amblyopic vision. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2012.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society. Energy Materials 2014. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Carrara S, editor. Nano-Bio-Sensing. New York, NY: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Jomaah J, Ghibaudo G. Low Frequency Noise in Double-Gate SOI CMOS Devices. In: Amara A, Rozeau O, editors. Planar Double-Gate Transistor: From Technology to Circuit. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009; pp 89–104.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Skin Pharmacology and Physiology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Cigarette Smoke Could Thin Cerebral Cortex [Internet]. IFLScience. 2015 Feb [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Management Improvements Needed on Immigration and Customs Enforcement’s Infrastructure Modernization Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tripathi RB. Oligodendrogensis Following Experimental Spinal Cord Injury. 2008

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Montague J. Caution: Team Under Construction. New York Times. 2017 Oct;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSkin Pharmacology and Physiology
AbbreviationSkin Pharmacol. Physiol.
ISSN (print)1660-5527
ISSN (online)1660-5535
General Medicine

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