How to format your references using the Skin Pharmacology and Physiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Skin Pharmacology and Physiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P: Attractive information. Nature 2005;435:529.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nelson DL, Gibbs RA: Genetics. The critical region in trisomy 21. Science 2004;306:619–621.
A journal article with 3 authors
Elsner JB, Kossin JP, Jagger TH: The increasing intensity of the strongest tropical cyclones. Nature 2008;455:92–95.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Gago S, Elena SF, Flores R, Sanjuán R: Extremely high mutation rate of a hammerhead viroid. Science 2009;323:1308.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wills B: Purposely Profitable. Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2016.
An edited book
Katayama Y, Maeda T, Kuroiwa T (eds): Brain Edema XV. Vienna, Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Ghosh S, Bachhar T, Maiti NS, Mitra I, Pal Chaudhuri P: Theory and Application of Equal Length Cycle Cellular Automata (ELCCA) for Enzyme Classification; in Bandini S, Manzoni S, Umeo H, Vizzari G (eds): Cellular Automata: 9th International Conference on Cellular Automata for Research and Industry, ACRI 2010, Ascoli Piceno, Italy, September 21-24, 2010. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, 2010, pp 46–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Skin Pharmacology and Physiology.

Blog post
Luntz S: New Planetary System Discovered Just 54 Light-Years Away. IFLScience 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30];Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: Rail Safety: The Federal Railroad Administration Is Better Targeting Safety Risks, but Needs to Assess Results to Determine the Impact of Its Efforts. Washington, DC, U.S. Government Printing Office, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Scaramella J: Physical activity and red light foods consumed in ASPIRE-VA veterans 2013;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J: M.T.A.’s $1 Million Prizes Are at End of the Tunnel. New York Times 2017;A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSkin Pharmacology and Physiology
AbbreviationSkin Pharmacol. Physiol.
ISSN (print)1660-5527
ISSN (online)1660-5535
General Medicine

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