How to format your references using the Economic Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Willyard, C., 2010, Tiny steps towards an HIV vaccine: Nature, v. 466, p. S8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Groisman, A., and Steinberg, V., V., 2000, Elastic turbulence in a polymer solution flow: Nature, v. 405, p. 53–55.
A journal article with 3 authors
Frank, M. J., Seeberger, L. C., and O’reilly, R. C., 2004, By carrot or by stick: cognitive reinforcement learning in parkinsonism: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 306, p. 1940–1943.
A journal article with 15 or more authors
Fu, Y.-X., Djupsund, K., Gao, H., Hayden, B., Shen, K., and Dan, Y., 2002, Temporal specificity in the cortical plasticity of visual space representation: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 296, p. 1999–2003.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stacey, D., 2008, Aeronautical Radio Communication Systems and Networks: Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Ruzhansky, M., and Wirth, J., eds., 2011, Modern Aspects of the Theory of Partial Differential Equations: Operator Theory: Advances and Applications, Basel, Springer, VIII, 368 p p.
A chapter in an edited book
Martin Laming, J., and Hwang, U., 2005, How Did Cassiopeia A Explode? A Chandra VLP, in Kyrala, G. A. ed., High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics: Dordrecht, Springer Netherlands, p. 33–37.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Geology.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016, Ice And Speed, The Drugs That Kept Soldiers Awake And A President Young, IFLScience (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2000, Federal Research: DOE Is Providing Independent Review of the Scientific Merit of Its Research: U.S. Government Printing Office RCED-00-109.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bartaula, B., 2017,Stand Level Growth and Survival Equations for Cutover Sites Loblolly Pine Plantations in the Mid-Gulf Region of Southern United StatesDoctoral dissertation: Mississippi State, MS, Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B., and Baker, A. L., 2016, Death, Mistrust and Too Few Officers: New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Willyard, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Groisman and Steinberg, 2000; Willyard, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Groisman and Steinberg, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Fu et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Geology
ISSN (print)0361-0128
ISSN (online)1554-0774

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