How to format your references using the Economic Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kolber, Z.S., 2006, Ecology. Getting a better picture of the ocean’s nitrogen budget: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 312, no. 5779, p. 1479–1480.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wallace, S.C., and Wang, X., 2004, Two new carnivores from an unusual late Tertiary forest biota in eastern North America: Nature, v. 431, no. 7008, p. 556–559.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bean, J.L., Kempton, E.M.-R., and Homeier, D., 2010, A ground-based transmission spectrum of the super-Earth exoplanet GJ 1214b: Nature, v. 468, no. 7324, p. 669–672.
A journal article with 15 or more authors
Zhang, C., Koepke, J., Kirchner, C., Götze, N., and Behrens, H., 2014, Rapid hydrothermal cooling above the axial melt lens at fast-spreading mid-ocean ridge: Scientific reports, v. 4, p. 6342.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shimizu, H., 2017, Shimizu’s Dermatology: Chichester, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Kidokoro, T., Harata, N., Subanu, L.P., Jessen, J., Motte, A., and Seltzer, E.P., eds., 2008, Sustainable City Regions: Space, Place and Governance: cSUR-UT Series: Library for Sustainable Urban Regeneration, Tokyo, Springer Japan, XII, 334 p. 98 illus p.
A chapter in an edited book
Karuppusamy, S., and Jerome, J., 2014, Real-Time Video Based Face Identification Using Fast Sparse Representation and Incremental Learning, in Thampi, S.M., Gelbukh, A., and Mukhopadhyay, J. eds., Advances in Signal Processing and Intelligent Recognition Systems: Cham, Springer International Publishing, p. 33–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Geology.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2017, Watery Extrasolar Neptune Gives Astronomers Clues About Its Formation, IFLScience (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993, Social Security: Telephone Busy Signal Rates at Local SSA Field Offices: U.S. Government Printing Office HRD-93-49.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Henry, A.G., 2010,Plant foods and the dietary ecology of Neandertals and modern humansDoctoral dissertation: Washington, DC, George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K., 2010, Achieving Techno-Literacy: New York Times, p. MM21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kolber, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Wallace and Wang, 2004; Kolber, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wallace and Wang, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Geology
ISSN (print)0361-0128
ISSN (online)1554-0774

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