How to format your references using the Economic Geology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Economic Geology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Livingston, D. M., 2009, Cancer. Complicated supercomplexes: Science (New York, N.Y.), v. 324, p. 602–603.
A journal article with 2 authors
Newman, D. K., and Kolter, R., 2000, A role for excreted quinones in extracellular electron transfer: Nature, v. 405, p. 94–97.
A journal article with 3 authors
Liu, H., Gao, J., and Zhao, J., 2013, From boron cluster to two-dimensional boron sheet on Cu(111) surface: growth mechanism and hole formation: Scientific reports, v. 3, p. 3238.
A journal article with 15 or more authors
Chen, L., Zhu, Y., Yang, D., Zou, R., Wu, J., and Tian, H., 2014, Synthesis and antibacterial activities of antibacterial peptides with a spiropyran fluorescence probe: Scientific reports, v. 4, p. 6860.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kaut Roth, C., and Faulkner, W. H., Jr, 2013, Review Questions for MRI: West Sussex, UK, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,.
An edited book
Aguilar, L. T., 2015, Self-Oscillations in Dynamic Systems: A New Methodology via Two-Relay Controllers (I. Boiko, L. Fridman, & R. Iriarte, Eds.): Systems & Control: Foundations & Applications, Cham, Springer International Publishing, XIV, 158 p. 62 illus., 4 illus. in color p.
A chapter in an edited book
Stoops, G., Gérard, M., and Arnalds, O., 2008, A Micromorphological Study of Andosol Genesis in Iceland, in Kapur, S., Mermut, A., and Stoops, G. eds., New Trends in Soil Micromorphology: Berlin, Heidelberg, Springer, p. 67–89.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Economic Geology.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2015, New Species Of Pillbug Discovered Near L.A, IFLScience (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997, Excise Taxes: Use of Safe Harbor Look-Back Rules: U.S. Government Printing Office GGD-97-175R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Edwards, D. H., 2017,Why Do They Get High?: An Examination of Social Bond Theory and Substance Use in CollegeDoctoral dissertation: Lafayette, LA, University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E., 1994, PLAYING IN THE NEIGHBORHOOD: New York Times, p. 1312.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Livingston, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Newman and Kolter, 2000; Livingston, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Newman and Kolter, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Chen et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleEconomic Geology
ISSN (print)0361-0128
ISSN (online)1554-0774

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