How to format your references using the IRBM News citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IRBM News. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Austin J. Salary survey. U.S. life scientists report rising salaries and high job satisfaction. Science 2006;314:842–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Moore JS, Kraft ML. Chemistry. Synchronized self-assembly. Science 2008;320:620–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Palmer MJ, Fukuyama F, Relman DA. SCIENCE GOVERNANCE. A more systematic approach to biological risk. Science 2015;350:1471–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li Q, Owens JR, Han C, Sumpter BG, Lu W, Bernholc J, et al. Self-organized and cu-coordinated surface linear polymerization. Sci Rep 2013;3:2102.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Walker M. Happy-People-Pills For All. Oxford, UK: Wiley Blackwell; 2013.
An edited book
Blanchette JC, Kosmatov N, editors. Tests and Proofs: 9th International Conference, TAP 2015, Held as Part of STAF 2015, L’Aquila, Italy, July 22-24, 2015. Proceedings. vol. 9154. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Osipov A, Rokhlin V, Xiao H. Analysis of the Integral Operator. In: Rokhlin V, Xiao H, editors. Prolate Spheroidal Wave Functions of Order Zero: Mathematical Tools for Bandlimited Approximation, Boston, MA: Springer US; 2013, p. 135–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IRBM News.

Blog post
Evans K. Survey Finds Americans Are Confused About Climate Change But Support Climate Policy. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Observations on Ohio’s Implementation of the Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act of 1986. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zhao J. Contextual Differential Item Functioning: Examining the Validity of Teaching Self-Efficacy Instruments Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Modeling. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Powell M. Two Teams Diverge on a Common Path. New York Times 2017:B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIRBM News
AbbreviationIRBM News
ISSN (print)1959-7568
Biomedical Engineering

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