How to format your references using the Singapore Dental Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Singapore Dental Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
P. Moore, Amplifying the signal, Nature. 435 (2005) 236.
A journal article with 2 authors
T.R. Pedersen, E.A. Gerken, Creation of visible artificial optical emissions in the aurora by high-power radio waves, Nature. 433 (2005) 498–500.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Anderson, W.W. Cole, S.C.H. Barrett, Botany: specialized bird perch aids cross-pollination, Nature. 435 (2005) 41–42.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
R.J. Metzger, O.D. Klein, G.R. Martin, M.A. Krasnow, The branching programme of mouse lung development, Nature. 453 (2008) 745–750.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.E. Sheriff, Y.F. Hu, Mobile Satellite Communication Networks, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2001.
An edited book
C.L. Goues, S. Yoo, eds., Search-Based Software Engineering: 6th International Symposium, SSBSE 2014, Fortaleza, Brazil, August 26-29, 2014. Proceedings, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
E. Hofmann, D. Maucher, S. Piesker, P. Richter, Measures for Strengthening Internal Financing Power from a Supply Chain Viewpoint, in: D. Maucher, S. Piesker, P. Richter (Eds.), Ways Out of the Working Capital Trap: Empowering Self-Financing Growth Through Modern Supply Management, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011: pp. 55–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Singapore Dental Journal.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Organic Molecules That Glow At Room Temperature Make Energy-Efficient Lights, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites: Acquisition Is Under Way, but Improvements Needed in Management and Oversight, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.Y. Ramirez, Barriers to access to health care among Latino immigrants in the United States: A quantitative study, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Traub, Types of Catastrophe, New York Times. (2016) BR12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSingapore Dental Journal
AbbreviationSingapore Dent. J.
ISSN (print)0377-5291
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

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