How to format your references using the Singapore Dental Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Singapore Dental Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M.S. Smith, Opening education, Science. 323 (2009) 89–93.
A journal article with 2 authors
R.K. Suarez, D.R. Jones, Obituary: Peter W. Hochachka (1937-2002), Nature. 420 (2002) 140.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.C. Hay Burgess, J. Wasserman, C.A. Dahl, Global health diagnostics, Nature. 444 Suppl 1 (2006) 1–2.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Y. Tanaka, G. Guhde, A. Suter, E.L. Eskelinen, D. Hartmann, R. Lüllmann-Rauch, P.M. Janssen, J. Blanz, K. von Figura, P. Saftig, Accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and cardiomyopathy in LAMP-2-deficient mice, Nature. 406 (2000) 902–906.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Ledolter, Data Mining and Business Analytics with R, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
J. Ruiz-Amaya, Device-Level Modeling and Synthesis of High-Performance Pipeline ADCs, Springer, New York, NY, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
J.G. Backhaus, The Word of Honour, in: J.G. Backhaus, W. Drechsler (Eds.), Friedrich Nietzsche (1844–1900): Economy and Society, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2006: pp. 87–109.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Singapore Dental Journal.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Ultrasound Used To Create 3D Shapes In Mid Air That Can Be Seen And Felt, IFLScience. (2014).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Joint Direct Attack Munition: Low-Rate Initial Production Decision, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1997.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E. Guiltinan, Characterizing well connectivity in fractured bedrock using periodic hydraulic tests, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
R. Meyerowitz, S. Kelly, Box Seats; THE BIRDS OF SUMMER, New York Times. (2007) 810.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSingapore Dental Journal
AbbreviationSingapore Dent. J.
ISSN (print)0377-5291
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

Other styles