How to format your references using the Singapore Dental Journal citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Singapore Dental Journal. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. McNutt, A new look, Science. 344 (2014) 781.
A journal article with 2 authors
D. Maruyama, M. Zochowski, Competition and cooperation between active intra-network and passive extra-network transport processes, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5269.
A journal article with 3 authors
J.P. Harmon, N.A. Moran, A.R. Ives, Species response to environmental change: impacts of food web interactions and evolution, Science. 323 (2009) 1347–1350.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J.A. Tang, S. Dugar, G. Zhong, N.S. Dalal, J.P. Zheng, Y. Yang, R. Fu, Non-destructive monitoring of charge-discharge cycles on lithium ion batteries using 7Li stray-field imaging, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 2596.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
K. Ravindran, The Mathematics of Financial Models, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2014.
An edited book
J. Kilian, ed., Theory of Cryptography: Second Theory of Cryptography Conference, TCC 2005, Cambridge, MA, USA, February 10-12, 2005. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Carneiro, J.J. Heckman, D.V. Masterov, Understanding the Sources of Ethnic and Racial Wage Gaps and Their Implications for Policy, in: L.B. Nielsen, R.L. Nelson (Eds.), Handbook of Employment Discrimination Research: Rights and Realities, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2005: pp. 99–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Singapore Dental Journal.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Methane Detected On Mars Could Have Come From Curiosity, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Costly Requirements for Certain Control Towers, Navigation Aids, and Airport Lights, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L.C. Okafor-Dike, The effect of leadership on economic development: A case study of Nigeria, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Feeney, Animal-Free and Sermon-Free, New York Times. (2011) NJ10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSingapore Dental Journal
AbbreviationSingapore Dent. J.
ISSN (print)0377-5291
ScopeGeneral Dentistry

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