How to format your references using the International Journal of Paleopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Paleopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Shi, S.H., 2001. Amersham Biosciences & Science Prize. AMPA receptor dynamics and synaptic plasticity. Science 294, 1851–1852.
A journal article with 2 authors
Padilla, A., Gibson, I., 2000. Science moves to centre stage. Nature 403, 357–359.
A journal article with 3 authors
Park, I.-U., Peacey, M.W., Munafò, M.R., 2014. Modelling the effects of subjective and objective decision making in scientific peer review. Nature 506, 93–96.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Farnham, T.L., Schleicher, D.G., Woodney, L.M., Birch, P.V., Eberhardy, C.A., Levy, L., 2001. Imaging and photometry of comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) before perihelion and after breakup. Science 292, 1348–1353.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Miller, M.A., 2005. Internet Technologies Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Hatakeyama, T., 2005. Thermal Properties of Green Polymers and Biocomposites, Hot Topics in Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Konopka, A., van Beers, W., 2016. Compositionwork: A Method for Self Exploration and Development, in: Hermans, H. (Ed.), Assessing and Stimulating a Dialogical Self in Groups, Teams, Cultures, and Organizations. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 55–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Paleopathology.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2017. Melting Sea Ice Causing Hungry Polar Bears To Switch From Seals To Goose Nesting Sites [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. Aviation Security: Vulnerabilities Exposed Through Covert Testing of TSA’s Passenger Screening Process (No. GAO-08-48T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sevilla, A.D., 2014. The moderating influence of core self-evaluation, emotional intelligence and extraversion on career success (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McKINLEY, J.C., Jr, 2017. Top State Court Deals Facebook a Setback. New York Times A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Shi, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Padilla and Gibson, 2000; Shi, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Padilla and Gibson, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Farnham et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Paleopathology
AbbreviationInt. J. Paleopathol.
ISSN (print)1879-9817

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