How to format your references using the International Journal of Paleopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Paleopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vargas-Parada, L., 2012. Pathology: Three questions. Nature 488, S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rice, W.R., Friberg, U., 2008. Genetics. Functionally degenerate--Y not so? Science 319, 42–43.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sato, T.K., Overduin, M., Emr, S.D., 2001. Location, location, location: membrane targeting directed by PX domains. Science 294, 1881–1885.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Holden, L.G., Prochnow, C., Chang, Y.P., Bransteitter, R., Chelico, L., Sen, U., Stevens, R.C., Goodman, M.F., Chen, X.S., 2008. Crystal structure of the anti-viral APOBEC3G catalytic domain and functional implications. Nature 456, 121–124.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Petrozzi, S., 2012. Practical Instrumental Analysis. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Cartwright, C.C., Wallace, D.C. (Eds.), 2013. Nursing Care of the Pediatric Neurosurgery Patient, 2nd ed. 2013. ed. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Andersson, D., Gurvich, V., Hansen, T.D., 2009. On Acyclicity of Games with Cycles, in: Goldberg, A.V., Zhou, Y. (Eds.), Algorithmic Aspects in Information and Management: 5th International Conference, AAIM 2009, San Francisco, CA, USA, June 15-17, 2009. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 15–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Paleopathology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Cold Light: Astronomers Go To The Ends Of The Earth To See Cosmic Carbon [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Aviation Safety: Users Differ in Views of Collision Avoidance System and Cite Problems (No. RCED-92-113). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gambini, F., 2011. Leadership capacity for succession and sustainability in a family-owned private school (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Corkery, M., 2017. The Graduates of Walmart Academy. New York Times A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vargas-Parada, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Rice and Friberg, 2008; Vargas-Parada, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Rice and Friberg, 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (Holden et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Paleopathology
AbbreviationInt. J. Paleopathol.
ISSN (print)1879-9817

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