How to format your references using the International Journal of Paleopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Paleopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pääbo, S., 2003. The mosaic that is our genome. Nature 421, 409–412.
A journal article with 2 authors
Castaneda, J., Matzuk, M.M., 2015. DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY. Toward a rapid and reversible male pill. Science 350, 385–386.
A journal article with 3 authors
Farihi, J., Gänsicke, B.T., Koester, D., 2013. Evidence for water in the rocky debris of a disrupted extrasolar minor planet. Science 342, 218–220.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Loulergue, L., Schilt, A., Spahni, R., Masson-Delmotte, V., Blunier, T., Lemieux, B., Barnola, J.-M., Raynaud, D., Stocker, T.F., Chappellaz, J., 2008. Orbital and millennial-scale features of atmospheric CH4 over the past 800,000 years. Nature 453, 383–386.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sóbester, A., Forrester, A.I.J., 2014. Aircraft Aerodynamic Design. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
AL-Hussaini, E.K., 2015. Exponentiated Distributions, Atlantis Studies in Probability and Statistics. Atlantis Press, Paris.
A chapter in an edited book
Vives, J., 2016. Decomposition of the Pricing Formula for Stochastic Volatility Models Based on Malliavin-Skorohod Type Calculus, in: Eddahbi, M., Essaky, E.H., Vives, J. (Eds.), Statistical Methods and Applications in Insurance and Finance: CIMPA School, Marrakech and Kelaat M’gouna, Morocco, April 2013, Springer Proceedings in Mathematics & Statistics. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 103–123.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Paleopathology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Cyber Security Experts Hacked Into A MOVING CAR And Took Control [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2017. NASA Commercial Crew Program: Schedule Pressure Increases as Contractors Delay Key Events (No. GAO-17-137). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Papacostaki, M., 2010. Under the black sun (Doctoral dissertation). Pacifica Graduate Institute, Carpinteria, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2016. With Vinyl, Creating a Physical Presence. New York Times B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pääbo, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Castaneda and Matzuk, 2015; Pääbo, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Castaneda and Matzuk, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Loulergue et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Paleopathology
AbbreviationInt. J. Paleopathol.
ISSN (print)1879-9817

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