How to format your references using the International Journal of Paleopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Paleopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bockrath, M.W., 2012. Chemistry. A single-molecule engine. Science 338, 754–755.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elowitz, M.B., Leibler, S., 2000. A synthetic oscillatory network of transcriptional regulators. Nature 403, 335–338.
A journal article with 3 authors
West, S.A., Pen, I., Griffin, A.S., 2002. Cooperation and competition between relatives. Science 296, 72–75.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sun, Y., Xiao, X., Xu, G., Dong, G., Chai, G., Zhang, H., Liu, P., Zhu, H., Zhan, Y., 2013. Anisotropic vanadium dioxide sculptured thin films with superior thermochromic properties. Sci. Rep. 3, 2756.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lloret, J., Shulman, G., Love, R.M., 2013. Condition and Health Indicators of Exploited Marine Fishes. John Wiley & Sons, Oxford.
An edited book
Nolan, G., 2014. Android Best Practices. Apress, Berkeley, CA.
A chapter in an edited book
Baize, D., van Oort, F., 2014. Potentially Harmful Elements in Forest Soils, in: Bini, C., Bech, J. (Eds.), PHEs, Environment and Human Health: Potentially Harmful Elements in the Environment and the Impact on Human Health. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 151–198.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Paleopathology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Scientists Successfully Chop Out Mitochondrial DNA Mutations In Mouse Embryos [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2003. Rail Safety and Security: Some Actions Already Taken to Enhance Rail Security, but Risk-based Plan Needed (No. GAO-03-435). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hung, H.-C., 2006. Allocation of Jobs and Resources to Work Centers (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S., 2009. Behind an Outsize Court Case, Two Everyday Tenants. New York Times CY5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Bockrath, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Bockrath, 2012; Elowitz and Leibler, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Elowitz and Leibler, 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Sun et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Paleopathology
AbbreviationInt. J. Paleopathol.
ISSN (print)1879-9817

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