How to format your references using the Respiratory Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Respiratory Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Luo Z-X. Journal club. A palaeontologist ponders how genes and fossils can illuminate mammalian evolution. Nature. 2010;465:669.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Subramaniam S, Henderson R. Molecular mechanism of vectorial proton translocation by bacteriorhodopsin. Nature. 2000;406:653–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Langmore NE, Hunt S, Kilner RM. Escalation of a coevolutionary arms race through host rejection of brood parasitic young. Nature. 2003;422:157–60.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Yin Y, Cheng Z, Wang L, Jin K, Wang W. Graphene, a material for high temperature devices--intrinsic carrier density, carrier drift velocity, and lattice energy. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5758.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Moreau N. Tools for Signal Compression. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
1. Grönlund H-E. iOS 6 Recipes: A Problem-Solution Approach. Francis C, Grimes S, editors. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Maciocco G, Tagliagambe S. Projectual Intention and Collective Will. In: Tagliagambe S, editor. People and Space: New Forms of Interaction in the City Project. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2009. p. 19–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Respiratory Research.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Potential Life on Red Dwarf Planets In Peril Due To Extreme Space Weather. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Highlights of a GAO Forum: Managing the Supplier Base in the 21st Century. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Mar. Report No.: GAO-06-533SP.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Turkel CC. Female leaders’ 360-degree self -perception accuracy for leadership competencies and skills [Doctoral dissertation]. [Minneapolis, MN]: Capella University; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. A Usual Suspect Slips Into a Party Owned by Outsiders. New York Times. 2011 Mar 28;D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRespiratory Research
ISSN (online)1465-993X

Other styles