How to format your references using the Respiratory Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Respiratory Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Jackson A. Intense equatorial flux spots on the surface of the Earth’s core. Nature. 2003;424:760–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Blake C, Wall J. A velocity dipole in the distribution of radio galaxies. Nature. 2002;416:150–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Minto C, Myers RA, Blanchard W. Survival variability and population density in fish populations. Nature. 2008;452:344–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Jansen R, Yu H, Greenbaum D, Kluger Y, Krogan NJ, Chung S, et al. A Bayesian networks approach for predicting protein-protein interactions from genomic data. Science. 2003;302:449–53.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Tolinski M. Plastics and Sustainability. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
1. Davis PJ. The Mathematical Experience, Study Edition. Hersh R, Marchisotto EA, editors. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Ammari K, Nicaise S. Systems with Delay. In: Nicaise S, editor. Stabilization of Elastic Systems by Collocated Feedback. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 147–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Respiratory Research.

Blog post
1. Andrews R. Powerful 6.5M Earthquake Detected Off The Coast Of California [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Support Service Contracting at Johnson Space Center Needs Strengthening. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1980 Oct. Report No.: PSAD-81-2.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Tan-atichat TP. Behavior of VNC in high-latency environments and techniques for improvement [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Williams J. Reading by Numbers. New York Times. 2017 Mar 9;BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRespiratory Research
ISSN (online)1465-993X

Other styles