How to format your references using the Respiratory Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Respiratory Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Marx V. The DNA of a nation. Nature. 2015;524:503–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Shchukin D, Möhwald H. Materials science. A coat of many functions. Science. 2013;341:1458–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Belonoshko AB, Ahuja R, Johansson B. Stability of the body-centred-cubic phase of iron in the Earth’s inner core. Nature. 2003;424:1032–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Chen T, Gu J, Zhang X, Ma Y, Cao L, Wang Z, et al. System-level study on synergism and antagonism of active ingredients in traditional Chinese medicine by using molecular imprinting technology. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7159.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Held G. Virtual Private Networking. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2005.
An edited book
1. Jezierski J. Homotopy Methods in Topological Fixed and Periodic Points Theory. Marzantowicz W, editor. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Zeng Y, Zhuang J, Su Z. Construction of Domain Ontology for Engineering Equipment Maintenance Support. In: Chen H, Ji H, Sun L, Wang H, Qian T, Ruan T, editors. Knowledge Graph and Semantic Computing: Semantic, Knowledge, and Linked Big Data: First China Conference, CCKS 2016, Beijing, China, September 19-22, 2016, Revised Selected Papers. Singapore: Springer; 2016. p. 33–8.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Respiratory Research.

Blog post
1. Hale T. A Ghost Chili Pepper Gives Man A Hole In His Esophagus [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. ADP Procurement: DOD’s Approach to Providing Logistics Data on Compact Disk Is Justified. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Aug. Report No.: IMTEC-91-74.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Castro Deller E. Recognizing signs of dementia: A curriculum for child welfare workers [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. St. John Kelly E. Springer’s Harvest. New York Times. 1998 Apr 27;D10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleRespiratory Research
ISSN (online)1465-993X

Other styles