How to format your references using the Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. Prosnitz, Science and law. WMD sensors--search and seizure, Science. 310 (2005) 978.
A journal article with 2 authors
E. Owusu-Ansah, U. Banerjee, Reactive oxygen species prime Drosophila haematopoietic progenitors for differentiation, Nature. 461 (2009) 537–541.
A journal article with 3 authors
B. Deng, R.Q. Zhang, X.Q. Shi, New insight into the spin-conserving excitation of the negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy center in diamond, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5144.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Zhang, Y. Wang, Y. Xu, H. Lei, Y. Zhao, H. Li, X. Lin, G. Chen, H. Tang, Metabonomic analysis reveals efficient ameliorating effects of acupoint stimulations on the menopause-caused alterations in mammalian metabolism, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 3641.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P. Kivy, Once-Told Tales, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2011.
An edited book
B. Schwenker, Management Between Strategy and Finance, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Ü. Lepik, H. Hein, Integral Equations, in: H. Hein (Ed.), Haar Wavelets: With Applications, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014: pp. 59–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Signal Processing.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Behavioural Study Shows That Rats Know How To Repay A Favour, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Space Station: Update on the Impact of the Expanded Russian Role, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. Penney, Executive Fire Officers’ strategic thinking capabilities and their relationship with information and communication technology, Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Barron, A Museum Rights Its Course as Its Flagship Returns, New York Times. (2016) C23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSignal Processing
AbbreviationSignal Processing
ISSN (print)0165-1684
ScopeComputer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing
Control and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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