How to format your references using the Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
C. Willyard, Stem cells: A time to heal, Nature. 503 (2013) S4-6.
A journal article with 2 authors
E.W. Wolff, British Antarctic Survey, High Cross, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0ET, UK., Ocean science. Whither Antarctic sea ice?, Science. 302 (2003) 1164.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Mitchell, P. Wei, W.A. Lim, Oscillatory stress stimulation uncovers an Achilles’ heel of the yeast MAPK signaling network, Science. 350 (2015) 1379–1383.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
J. Wang, Y. Sun, S. Zheng, X.-S. Zhang, H. Zhou, L. Chen, APG: an Active Protein-Gene network model to quantify regulatory signals in complex biological systems, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1097.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. King, Process Control, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2011.
An edited book
B. Levine, T. Yoshimori, V. Deretic, eds., Autophagy in Infection and Immunity, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Terazono, T. Izumita, N. Asada, H. Demura, N. Hirata, Exploring Structural and Dimensional Similarities Within—Lunar Nomenclature System Using Query Interfaces, in: S. Bhalla (Ed.), Databases in Networked Information Systems: 5th International Workshop, DNIS 2007, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Japan, October 17-19, 2007. Proceedings, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2007: pp. 48–53.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Signal Processing.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, There Might Be An Ocean Underneath Pluto’s Surface, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Ocean Mining Technology Transfer (Best available copy), U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
K.G. Sawant, A Chemo-Physical Model for Predicting Post Fracking Pressure Buildup in Pierre Shale, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
G. Harris, B. Shpigel, Jets Owner Is Appointed Ambassador to Britain, New York Times. (2017) A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSignal Processing
AbbreviationSignal Processing
ISSN (print)0165-1684
ScopeComputer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing
Control and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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