How to format your references using the Signal Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Signal Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
F.L. Whipple, ESSAYS ON SCIENCE AND SOCIETY: Of Comets and Meteors, Science. 289 (2000) 728.
A journal article with 2 authors
P.G. Falkowski, C.S. Davis, Natural proportions, Nature. 431 (2004) 131.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Tanaka, C. Urabe, K. Aihara, Random and targeted interventions for epidemic control in metapopulation models, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 5522.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K.R. Ridderinkhof, M. Ullsperger, E.A. Crone, S. Nieuwenhuis, The role of the medial frontal cortex in cognitive control, Science. 306 (2004) 443–447.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.M. Bonem, Problem Solving for Process Operators and Specialists, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2011.
An edited book
C.H. Skiadas, ed., Advances in Data Analysis: Theory and Applications to Reliability and Inference, Data Mining, Bioinformatics, Lifetime Data, and Neural Networks, Birkhäuser, Boston, MA, 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
G. Cassarini, F. Ieva, Statistical Methods to Study the Representativeness of STEMI Archive, in: N. Grieco, M. Marzegalli, A.M. Paganoni (Eds.), New Diagnostic, Therapeutic and Organizational Strategies for Acute Coronary Syndromes Patients, Springer, Milano, 2013: pp. 61–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Signal Processing.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Monkeys In South America Are Almost All Colour Blind And No One Knows Why, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Weather Forecasting: Systems Architecture Needed for National Weather Service Modernization, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
E.G. Rosenfeld, The ascent of women to senior leadership positions in the financial services industry: A phenomenological study, Doctoral dissertation, Capella University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Kenigsberg, Review: ‘Hogtown’ Tells a Poetic Detective Story in Chicago, New York Times. (2016) C11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSignal Processing
AbbreviationSignal Processing
ISSN (print)0165-1684
ScopeComputer Vision and Pattern Recognition
Signal Processing
Control and Systems Engineering
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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