How to format your references using the Journal of Big Data citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Big Data. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Carr LD. Physics. Negative temperatures? Science. 2013;339:42–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Sharma A, Hartwig JF. Metal-catalysed azidation of tertiary C-H bonds suitable for late-stage functionalization. Nature. 2015;517:600–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kim H-J, Lee J-H, Cho J-H. Antiferromagnetic Slater insulator phase of Na₂IrO₃. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5253.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Xiang S, Cooper-Morgan A, Jiao X, Kiledjian M, Manley JL, Tong L. Structure and function of the 5’-->3’ exoribonuclease Rat1 and its activating partner Rai1. Nature. 2009;458:784–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Müller B, Van de Voorde M. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology for Human Health. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2017.
An edited book
1. Dagar JC, Sharma PC, Sharma DK, Singh AK, editors. Innovative Saline Agriculture. New Delhi: Springer India; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Brint S. What Are the Long Term Implications of Integration/Interdisciplinary Science on Traditional Disciplines and Their Professional Associations (Turf Wars)? In: Marcey DJ, Shaw MC, editors. Integrated Science: New Approaches to Education. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. p. 69–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Big Data.

Blog post
1. Hale T. The Alternative Medicine Blogger Who Faked Cancer Is Facing Legal Action [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Automated Systems: Legislative Branch’s Efforts in Sharing Payroll/Personnel Systems. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1990 Feb. Report No.: IMTEC-90-20.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Minick V. Educators’ Beliefs About and Approaches to the Evaluation of Student Writing [Doctoral dissertation]. [Tampa, FL]: University of South Florida; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Vecsey G. Calling on Old Reliable to Breathe New Life. New York Times. 2010 Oct 18;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Big Data
AbbreviationJ. Big Data
ISSN (online)2196-1115

Other styles