How to format your references using the Journal of Big Data citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Big Data. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. O’Gorman PA. Contrasting responses of mean and extreme snowfall to climate change. Nature. 2014;512:416–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Riddihough G, Zahn LM. Epigenetics. What is epigenetics? Introduction. Science. 2010;330:611.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Mendoza M, Herrmann HJ, Succi S. Hydrodynamic model for conductivity in graphene. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1052.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Kowalski MP, Dubouix-Bourandy A, Bajmoczi M, Golan DE, Zaidi T, Coutinho-Sledge YS, et al. Host resistance to lung infection mediated by major vault protein in epithelial cells. Science. 2007;317:130–2.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. DiGrado BD, Thorp GA. The Aboveground Steel Storage Tank Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
1. North PE, Sander T, editors. Vascular Tumors and Developmental Malformations: Pathogenic Mechanisms and Molecular Diagnosis. 1st ed. 2016. New York, NY: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Sin W. The Water Margin, Moral Degradation, and the Virtue of Zhixing. In: Lam C-M, Park J, editors. Sociological and Philosophical Perspectives on Education in the Asia-Pacific Region. Singapore: Springer; 2016. p. 51–65.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Big Data.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Barriers, Canals And Fake Islands: How We Can Save Cities From Rising Sea Levels. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Federal Communications Commission’s Effort To Implement the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1975 Feb. Report No.: 089644.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Bryan D. Facilitators or impediments to college readiness [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly C. Debutantes in Laredo, Surprisingly Colonial. New York Times. 2014 Feb 16;A27B.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Big Data
AbbreviationJ. Big Data
ISSN (online)2196-1115

Other styles