How to format your references using the Signal, Image and Video Processing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Signal, Image and Video Processing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marris, E.: India in demand. Nature. 433, 902–903 (2005)
A journal article with 2 authors
Johnston, R.J., Hobert, O.: A microRNA controlling left/right neuronal asymmetry in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature. 426, 845–849 (2003)
A journal article with 3 authors
Coulson, T., Lindström, J., Cotgreave, P.: Ecology. Seeking new recruits. Science. 295, 2023–2024 (2002)
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ohshiro, T., Yagami, T., Zhang, C., Matsuzaki, F.: Role of cortical tumour-suppressor proteins in asymmetric division of Drosophila neuroblast. Nature. 408, 593–596 (2000)

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chowdhury, S.: Optimization and Business Improvement Studies in Upstream Oil and Gas Industry. John Wiley &;#38; Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ (2016)
An edited book
von Weizsäcker, E.U. ed: Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker: A Pioneer on Environmental, Climate and Energy Policies. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2014)
A chapter in an edited book
Estep, P., Hoekstra, A.: The Leverage and Centrality of Mind. In: Aguirre, A., Foster, B., and Merali, Z. (eds.) How Should Humanity Steer the Future? pp. 37–47. Springer International Publishing, Cham (2016)

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Signal, Image and Video Processing.

Blog post
Andrew, E.: Superbugs Could Kill 10 Million Each Year By 2050, Overtaking Cancer,


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office: ADP Budget: SSA’s Information Technology Systems Budget Requests and Obligations. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC (1987)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Igbojekwe, S.C.: Development of Environmental Friendly Cement for Oil and Gas Well Application, (2014)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L.: Justices Hear Arguments About Pacts On Pricing, (2007)

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSignal, Image and Video Processing
AbbreviationSignal Image Video Process.
ISSN (print)1863-1703
ISSN (online)1863-1711
ScopeSignal Processing
Electrical and Electronic Engineering

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