How to format your references using the Ophthalmology Retina citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmology Retina. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kloosterman WP. GENETICS. Making heads or tails of shattered chromosomes. Science. 2015;348:1205–1206.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Kirch PV, Sharp WD. Coral 230Th dating of the imposition of a ritual control hierarchy in precontact Hawaii. Science. 2005;307:102–104.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bell E, Rowen L, Hood L. Publication rights for sequence data producers. Science. 2000;290:1696b–8b.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1. Kolbe JJ, Glor RE, Rodríguez Schettino L, et al. Genetic variation increases during biological invasion by a Cuban lizard. Nature. 2004;431:177–181.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ergül Ö, Gürel L. The Multilevel Fast Multipole Algorithm (MLFMA) for Solving Large-Scale Computational Electromagnetics Problems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Cantone G, Marchesi M eds. Agile Processes in Software Engineering and Extreme Programming: 15th International Conference, XP 2014, Rome, Italy, May 26-30, 2014. Proceedings. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Shaw S, Kellenberger K. Grouping and Summarizing Data. In: Kellenberger K, ed. Beginning T-SQL 2012. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2012:169–202.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmology Retina.

Blog post
1. Andrew E.New York Medical Examiners Not Required To Return All Organs, Court Rules. ; 2015 Accessed 30.10.18.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Update on the Readiness of the Social Security Administration. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Platt JB. Feast in the time of terror: Stalinist temporal paradox and the 1937 Pushkin Jubilee. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Williams J. Outside The Bars. New York Times. 2016:BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmology Retina
ISSN (print)2468-7219
ISSN (online)2468-6530

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