How to format your references using the Ophthalmology Retina citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmology Retina. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Hubbell JA. Materials science. Enhancing drug function. Science. 2003;300:595–596.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Geddis AE, Kaushansky K. Immunology. The root of platelet production. Science. 2007;317:1689–1691.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Kalas P, Liu MC, Matthews BC. Discovery of a large dust disk around the nearby star AU Microscopii. Science. 2004;303:1990–1992.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1. Wang C-T, Lu J-C, Bai J, et al. Different domains of synaptotagmin control the choice between kiss-and-run and full fusion. Nature. 2003;424:943–947.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Knowles R. 150 Contractual Problems and their Solutions. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
1. Kauczor H-U, Bäuerle T eds. Imaging of Complications and Toxicity following Tumor Therapy. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Stival C, Puga Molina L del C, Paudel B, et al. Sperm Capacitation and Acrosome Reaction in Mammalian Sperm. In: Buffone MG, ed. Sperm Acrosome Biogenesis and Function During Fertilization. Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:93–106.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmology Retina.

Blog post
1. Andrew E.We Built A Robot Butler (But Don’t Throw Out The Ironing Board Just Yet). ; 2015 Accessed 30.10.18.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Farm Program Modernization: Farm Service Agency Needs to Demonstrate the Capacity to Manage IT Initiatives. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2015.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. McClain R. The role of spirituality/religiosity in the lives of people who are hearing impaired. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Erlanger S, Bennhold K, Castle S. Britain’s Rebuke Of Its Leadership Upends E.U. Exit. New York Times. 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmology Retina
ISSN (print)2468-7219
ISSN (online)2468-6530

Other styles