How to format your references using the Ophthalmology Retina citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmology Retina. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Moazed D. Small RNAs in transcriptional gene silencing and genome defence. Nature. 2009;457:413–420.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Barve A, Wagner A. A latent capacity for evolutionary innovation through exaptation in metabolic systems. Nature. 2013;500:203–206.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Rockman MV, Skrovanek SS, Kruglyak L. Selection at linked sites shapes heritable phenotypic variation in C. elegans. Science. 2010;330:372–376.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1. Hildebrandt D, Glasser D, Hausberger B, et al. Chemistry. Producing transportation fuels with less work. Science. 2009;323:1680–1681.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Stavetski EJ. Managing Hedge Fund Managers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
1. Chakravorti S. Recent Trends in the Condition Monitoring of Transformers: Theory, Implementation and Analysis. (Dey D, Chatterjee B, eds.). London: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Dias PMC, Stuchi TJ. Isaac Newton, Robert Hooke and the Mystery of the Orbit. In: Krause D, Videira A, eds. Brazilian Studies in Philosophy and History of Science: An account of recent works. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2011:77–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmology Retina.

Blog post
1. Luntz S.If You Can Breathe, Thank Moss. ; 2016 Accessed 30.10.18.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Air Traffic Control: Status of FAA’s Plans to Close and Contract Out Low-Activity Towers. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Powell FM. A study of the effects of nanoparticle modification on the thermal, mechanical and hygrothermal performance of carbon/vinyl ester composites. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Lee L. The Multimedia Frank Gehry Now in Cardboard and on Film. New York Times. 2005:F3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmology Retina
ISSN (print)2468-7219
ISSN (online)2468-6530

Other styles