How to format your references using the Ophthalmology Retina citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Ophthalmology Retina. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Barnard AS. Materials science: nanoscale locomotion without fuel. Nature. 2015;519:37–38.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Haass C, Kahle PJ. Neuroscience. Parkin and its substrates. Science. 2001;293:224–225.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Neves SR, Ram PT, Iyengar R. G protein pathways. Science. 2002;296:1636–1639.
A journal article with 5 or more authors
1. Liu Y, Chen C-C, Hong Z, et al. Solution-processed small-molecule solar cells: breaking the 10% power conversion efficiency. Sci Rep. 2013;3:3356.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Ho RJY, Gibaldi M. Biotechnology and Biopharmaceuticals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2003.
An edited book
1. Emmi L ed. Behçet’s Syndrome: From Pathogenesis to Treatment. Milano: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Morandi C, Rolando A, Di Vita S. Looking at the Future? In: Rolando A, Di Vita S, eds. From Smart City to Smart Region: Digital Services for an Internet of Places. SpringerBriefs in Applied Sciences and Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:93–103.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Ophthalmology Retina.

Blog post
1. Andrew E.Diesel Fumes And Your Health: VW Cover-Up Shows We Need To Test Local Cars. ; 2015 Accessed 30.10.18.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. School-Meals Programs: USDA Has Enhanced Controls, but Additional Verification Could Help Ensure Legitimate Program Access. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Scaramella J. Physical activity and red light foods consumed in ASPIRE-VA veterans. 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly M. THE 1992 CAMPAIGN: Political Week; Clinton Basks in Glow Of Easy Lead in Race. New York Times. 1992:A16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleOphthalmology Retina
ISSN (print)2468-7219
ISSN (online)2468-6530

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