How to format your references using the Clinical Neuroradiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Neuroradiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Seitzinger S. A sustainable planet needs scientists to think ahead. Nature. 2010;468:601.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Rockenbach B, Milinski M. The efficient interaction of indirect reciprocity and costly punishment. Nature. 2006;444:718–23.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Jedema FJ, Filip AT, Van Wees BJ. Spintronics (Communication arising): Spin accumulation in mesoscopic systems. Nature. 2002;416:810.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Liu D, Duan Y-Y, Yang Z, Yu H-T. A new route for unburned carbon concentration measurements eliminating mineral content and coal rank effects. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4567.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Becker K, Rautenstrauch K. Ingenieurholzbau nach Eurocode 5: Konstruktion, Berechnung, Ausführung. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
1. Daniels JA. Preventing Lethal School Violence. Bradley MC, editor. New York, NY: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kok J, Van Bavel J. Stemming the tide. Denomination and religiousness in the Dutch fertility transition, 1845–1945. In: Derosas R, van Poppel F, editors. Religion and the Decline of Fertility in the Western World. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. p. 83–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Neuroradiology.

Blog post
1. Luntz S. A Single Photon Entangles Thousands Of Atoms [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Examination Into Certain Irregularities Reported as Existing at the Department of Labor Atterbury Job Corps Center near Edinburg, Indiana. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972 Oct. Report No.: B-130515.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Garcia-Manglano J. Working for pay or raising a family? Three papers on women’s work expectations and market outcomes [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Gurley G. Losing Her Friends for the Love of Trump. New York Times. 2017 Feb 23;D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Neuroradiology
AbbreviationClin. Neuroradiol.
ISSN (print)1869-1439
ISSN (online)1869-1447

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