How to format your references using the Clinical Neuroradiology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Neuroradiology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Vrakking M. Chemical physics: Electronic movies. Nature. 2009;460:960–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Halloran ME, Longini IM Jr. Public health. Community studies for vaccinating schoolchildren against influenza. Science. 2006;311:615–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Bryden HL, McDonagh EL, King BA. Changes in ocean water mass properties: oscillations or trends? Science. 2003;300:2086–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Peckys DB, Baudoin J-P, Eder M, Werner U, de Jonge N. Epidermal growth factor receptor subunit locations determined in hydrated cells with environmental scanning electron microscopy. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2626.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. McBain GD. Theory of Lift. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1. Kamrani AK, Nasr ESA, editors. Collaborative Engineering: Theory and Practice. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Marbach-Ad G, Egan LC, Thompson KV. Preparing Graduate Students for Their Teaching Responsibilities. In: Egan LC, Thompson KV, editors. A Discipline-Based Teaching and Learning Center: A Model for Professional Development. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 115–83.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Neuroradiology.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Antidepressant Trial’s Upended Results Show Need For Sharing All Data [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Space Acquisitions: Acquisition Management Continues to Improve but Challenges Persist for Current and Future Programs. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Mar. Report No.: GAO-14-382T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Graves IS. Positioning of Fifth Grade Students in Small-Group Settings: Naming Participation in Discussion-Based Mathematics [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Murphy MJO. Friday File. New York Times. 2014 Dec 12;C34.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Neuroradiology
AbbreviationClin. Neuroradiol.
ISSN (print)1869-1439
ISSN (online)1869-1447

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