How to format your references using the Future Cities and Environment citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Future Cities and Environment. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Thomas DJ (2004) Evidence for deep-water production in the North Pacific Ocean during the early Cenozoic warm interval. Nature 430:65–68
A journal article with 2 authors
Borgani S, Guzzo L (2001) X-ray clusters of galaxies as tracers of structure in the Universe. Nature 409:39–45
A journal article with 3 authors
Rainville S, Thompson JK, Pritchard DE (2004) An ion balance for ultra-high-precision atomic mass measurements. Science 303:334–338
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ihmels J, Bergmann S, Gerami-Nejad M, et al (2005) Rewiring of the yeast transcriptional network through the evolution of motif usage. Science 309:938–940

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Di Stefano M (2005) Distributed Data Management for Grid Computing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Wang S (2013) Functionalized Conjugated Polyelectrolytes: Design and Biomedical Applications. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Avby G (2016) Organizing for Deliberate Practice Through Workplace Reflection. In: Billett S, Dymock D, Choy S (eds) Supporting Learning Across Working Life: Models, Processes and Practices. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 75–90

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Future Cities and Environment.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2017) Does Your Smartphone Make You Less Likely To Trust Others? In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2011) Next Generation Air Transportation System: FAA Has Made Some Progress in Implementation, but Delays Threaten to Impact Costs and Benefits. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramotar-John BP (2014) Supplementing soybean meal with Camelina (Camelina sativa) in tilapia diets and optimizing commercial tilapia diets for use in intensive systems in the Western region of the United States. Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2014) Can’t Play by the Rules? It’s Fine by Mr. Monopoly. New York Times B3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleFuture Cities and Environment
AbbreviationFutur. Cities Environ.
ISSN (online)2363-9075

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