How to format your references using the Shakespeare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Shakespeare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sammonds, Peter R. 2006. “Planetary Science. Creep and Flow on the Icy Moons of the Outer Planets.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 311 (5765): 1250–1251.
A journal article with 2 authors
Helms, Brett, and E. W. Meijer. 2006. “Chemistry. Dendrimers at Work.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 313 (5789): 929–930.
A journal article with 3 authors
Inaba, Mayu, Michael Buszczak, and Yukiko M. Yamashita. 2015. “Nanotubes Mediate Niche-Stem-Cell Signalling in the Drosophila Testis.” Nature 523 (7560): 329–332.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Frost, Daniel J., Christian Liebske, Falko Langenhorst, Catherine A. McCammon, Reidar G. Trønnes, and David C. Rubie. 2004. “Experimental Evidence for the Existence of Iron-Rich Metal in the Earth’s Lower Mantle.” Nature 428 (6981): 409–412.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lemaire, Maurice. 2014. Mechanics and Uncertainty. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Vejnarová, Jiřina, and Václav Kratochvíl, eds. 2016. Belief Functions: Theory and Applications: 4th International Conference, BELIEF 2016, Prague, Czech Republic, September 21-23, 2016, Proceedings. Vol. 9861. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Clarke, Andy. 2007. “Designing for Outside the Box.” In Web Standards Creativity: Innovations in Web Design with XHTML, CSS, and DOM Scripting, edited by Mark Boulton, Andy Clarke, Simon Collison, Jeff Croft, Derek Featherstone, Ian Lloyd, Ethan Marcotte, Dan Rubin, and Rob Weychert, 78–107. Berkeley, CA: Apress.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Shakespeare.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “Water Vapour Discovered In The Atmosphere Of Neptune-Sized Exoplanet.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. Transportation Worker Identification Credential: Card Reader Pilot Results Are Unreliable; Security Benefits Should Be Reassessed. GAO-13-695T. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Muenyong-Zinner, Suchira. 2017. “Care First Wound Healing Center a Business Plan.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, Ben. 2016. “Revamped Streaming Services Plan to Gauge the Value of Music in the Internet Age.” New York Times, September 12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sammonds 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Sammonds 2006; Helms and Meijer 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Helms and Meijer 2006)
  • Three authors: (Inaba, Buszczak, and Yamashita 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Frost et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleShakespeare
ISSN (print)1745-0918
ISSN (online)1745-0926
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts

Other styles