How to format your references using the Shakespeare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Shakespeare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Powell, Kendall. 2002. “Call for Clinical-Trial Reform Leaves Critics Unmoved.” Nature 419 (6907): 546.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barnes, William, and Roy Sambles. 2004. “Physics. Only Skin Deep.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 305 (5685): 785–786.
A journal article with 3 authors
Tanaka, Yosuke, Yasushi Okada, and Nobutaka Hirokawa. 2005. “FGF-Induced Vesicular Release of Sonic Hedgehog and Retinoic Acid in Leftward Nodal Flow Is Critical for Left-Right Determination.” Nature 435 (7039): 172–177.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Dellavalle, Robert P., Eric J. Hester, Lauren F. Heilig, Amanda L. Drake, Jeff W. Kuntzman, Marla Graber, and Lisa M. Schilling. 2003. “Information Science. Going, Going, Gone: Lost Internet References.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302 (5646): 787–788.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Hoschette, John A. 2010. The Engineer’s Career Guide. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Yin, Zhixiang, Linqiang Pan, and Xianwen Fang, eds. 2013. Proceedings of The Eighth International Conference on Bio-Inspired Computing: Theories and Applications (BIC-TA), 2013. Vol. 212. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Marschner, Petra, and Zdenko Rengel. 2004. “Contributions of Rhizosphere Interactions to Soil Biological Fertility.” In Soil Biological Fertility: A Key to Sustainable Land Use in Agriculture, edited by Lynette K. Abbott and Daniel V. Murphy, 81–98. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Shakespeare.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2015. “Ancient Beaked Whale Hunted In Shallow Waters.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2006. Highway Finance: States’ Expanding Use of Tolling Illustrates Diverse Challenges and Strategies. GAO-06-554. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
McCarroll, Michele L. 2005. “Exercise and Airway Clearing Devices in Pulmonary Rehabilitation Programs for Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.” Doctoral dissertation, Columbus, OH: Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), Sophia Kishkovsky. 2005. “World Briefing | Europe: Russia: 21 Miners Killed In Blast.” New York Times, February 10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Powell 2002).
This sentence cites two references (Powell 2002; Barnes and Sambles 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Barnes and Sambles 2004)
  • Three authors: (Tanaka, Okada, and Hirokawa 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Dellavalle et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleShakespeare
ISSN (print)1745-0918
ISSN (online)1745-0926
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts

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