How to format your references using the Shakespeare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Shakespeare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Cohen, Jon. 2014. “Breakdown + Breakdown Runners-Up.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 346 (6216): 1450–1451.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wood, Bernard, and Terry Harrison. 2011. “The Evolutionary Context of the First Hominins.” Nature 470 (7334): 347–352.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ellis, Andre S., Thomas M. Johnson, and Thomas D. Bullen. 2002. “Chromium Isotopes and the Fate of Hexavalent Chromium in the Environment.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5562): 2060–2062.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Maragliano, C., S. Lilliu, M. S. Dahlem, M. Chiesa, T. Souier, and M. Stefancich. 2014. “Quantifying Charge Carrier Concentration in ZnO Thin Films by Scanning Kelvin Probe Microscopy.” Scientific Reports 4 (February): 4203.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stull, Craig, Phil Myers, and David Meerman Scott. 2008. Tuned In. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lin, Tsau Young, Ying Xie, Anita Wasilewska, and Churn-Jung Liau, eds. 2008. Data Mining: Foundations and Practice. Vol. 118. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Nikolos, Ioannis K., Eleftherios S. Zografos, and Athina N. Brintaki. 2007. “UAV Path Planning Using Evolutionary Algorithms.” In Innovations in Intelligent Machines - 1, edited by Javaan Singh Chahl, Lakhmi C. Jain, Akiko Mizutani, and Mika Sato-Ilic, 77–111. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Shakespeare.

Blog post
Andrews, Robin. 2016. “Scientists Have Figured Out What Caused The ‘Alien Radio Signal’ Coming From A Distant Exoplanet.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Highway Safety: Research Continues on a Variety of Factors That Contribute to Motor Vehicle Crashes. GAO-03-436. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mavromati, Anna. 2012. “One Foot In.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey, George. 2011. “Tigers’ Cabrera Speaks Cordially and Carries a Big Stick.” New York Times, October 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cohen 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Cohen 2014; Wood and Harrison 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wood and Harrison 2011)
  • Three authors: (Ellis, Johnson, and Bullen 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Maragliano et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleShakespeare
ISSN (print)1745-0918
ISSN (online)1745-0926
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts

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