How to format your references using the Shakespeare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Shakespeare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chakravarty, Sudip. 2008. “Physics. From Complexity to Simplicity.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 319 (5864): 735–736.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gregg, J. Marty, and Amit Kumar. 2014. “Applied Physics: Trawling for Complements.” Nature 510 (7506): 481–482.
A journal article with 3 authors
Politi, Alberto, Jonathan C. F. Matthews, and Jeremy L. O’Brien. 2009. “Shor’s Quantum Factoring Algorithm on a Photonic Chip.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 325 (5945): 1221.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Ou, Guangshuo, Oliver E. Blacque, Joshua J. Snow, Michel R. Leroux, and Jonathan M. Scholey. 2005. “Functional Coordination of Intraflagellar Transport Motors.” Nature 436 (7050): 583–587.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. 1998. Guidelines for Design Solutions for Process Equipment Failures. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Bonvalet, Catherine. 2015. Renewing the Family: A History of the Baby Boomers. Edited by Céline Clément and Jim Ogg. Vol. 4. INED Population Studies. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
DeMaris, Alfred, and Steven H. Selman. 2013. “Bivariate Statistical Techniques.” In Converting Data into Evidence: A Statistics Primer for the Medical Practitioner, edited by Steven H. Selman, 57–77. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Shakespeare.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “Investigators Announce The Cause Of Virgin Galactic SpaceShipTwo Crash.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Army Aviation Testing: Need to Reassess Consolidation Plan. NSIAD-96-87. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tan-atichat, Taurin Pete. 2008. “Behavior of VNC in High-Latency Environments and Techniques for Improvement.” Doctoral dissertation, La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, Linda. 2008. “A Clean Desk, At Least For Starters.” New York Times, January 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chakravarty 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Chakravarty 2008; Gregg and Kumar 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gregg and Kumar 2014)
  • Three authors: (Politi, Matthews, and O’Brien 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ou et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleShakespeare
ISSN (print)1745-0918
ISSN (online)1745-0926
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts

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