How to format your references using the Shakespeare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Shakespeare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knapp, Sandra. 2008. “Genetics. Celebrating Spuds.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321 (5886): 206–207.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen, Bo, and Constance L. Cepko. 2009. “HDAC4 Regulates Neuronal Survival in Normal and Diseased Retinas.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5911): 256–259.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lacks, Daniel J., James A. Van Orman, and Charles E. Lesher. 2012. “Isotope Fractionation in Silicate Melts.” Nature 482 (7385): E1; discussion E1-2.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Chen, J. Y., A. Kutana, C. P. Collier, and K. P. Giapis. 2005. “Electrowetting in Carbon Nanotubes.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 310 (5753): 1480–1483.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Glasgow, Larry A. 2014. Applied Mathematics for Science and Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kaminski, Henry J., ed. 2009. Myasthenia Gravis and Related Disorders. Current Clinical Neurology. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Sengupta, Nilanjana, Maria B. Grant, Sergio Caballero, and Mike E. Boulton. 2007. “Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Vascular Development and Ocular Neovascularization.” In Retinal Vascular Disease, edited by Antonia M. Joussen, Thomas W. Gardner, Bernd Kirchhof, and Stephen J. Ryan, 78–96. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Shakespeare.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “The Moon Was A First Step, Mars Will Test Our Capabilities, But Europa Is The Prize.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2011. Green Information Technology: Agencies Have Taken Steps to Implement Requirements, but Additional Guidance on Measuring Performance Needed. GAO-11-638. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gogri, Dhara. 2017. “Effect of Water Hardness on Adsorption of Lead From Aqueous Solutions Using Douglas Fir Biochar.” Doctoral dissertation, Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Story, Louise, and Mary Williams Walsh. 2010. “U.S. Is Said To Seek Way To Cut Ties With A.I.G.” New York Times, September 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knapp 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Knapp 2008; Chen and Cepko 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen and Cepko 2009)
  • Three authors: (Lacks, Van Orman, and Lesher 2012)
  • 4 or more authors: (Chen et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleShakespeare
ISSN (print)1745-0918
ISSN (online)1745-0926
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts

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