How to format your references using the Shakespeare citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Shakespeare. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weaver, Jason F. 2013. “Chemistry. Entropies of Adsorbed Molecules Exceed Expectations.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339 (6115): 39–40.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thoennessen, Michael, and Bradley Sherrill. 2011. “From Isotopes to the Stars.” Nature 473 (7345): 25–26.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu, Ming, José Carlos Pastor-Pareja, and Tian Xu. 2010. “Interaction between Ras(V12) and Scribbled Clones Induces Tumour Growth and Invasion.” Nature 463 (7280): 545–548.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Gregoriou, Georgia G., Stephen J. Gotts, Huihui Zhou, and Robert Desimone. 2009. “High-Frequency, Long-Range Coupling between Prefrontal and Visual Cortex during Attention.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 324 (5931): 1207–1210.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bragg, Steven M. 2010. Running an Effective Investor Relations Department. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Wieseman, Katherine C., and Molly H. Weinburgh, eds. 2009. Women’s Experiences in Leadership in K-16 Science Education Communities: Becoming and Being. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Breuer, Florian, and Richard Pink. 2005. “Monodromy Groups Associated to Non-Isotrivial Drinfeld Modules in Generic Characteristic.” In Number Fields and Function Fields—Two Parallel Worlds, edited by Gerard van der Geer, Ben Moonen, and René Schoof, 61–69. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Shakespeare.

Blog post
Hale, Tom. 2016. “New Plans Show Autonomous Submarine Designed To Explore The Oceans Of Jupiter’s Moon.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1978. Improvement of Certain Management Areas. 091301. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Vargas, Alma Rebecca. 2010. “Implementing Modern Geographic Technology in the Trucking Industry: A Case Study.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, Sophia. 2002. “Moscow Journal; Feast or Fast? Russians Just Can’t Give Up Lent.” New York Times, April 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Weaver 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Weaver 2013; Thoennessen and Sherrill 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Thoennessen and Sherrill 2011)
  • Three authors: (Wu, Pastor-Pareja, and Xu 2010)
  • 4 or more authors: (Gregoriou et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleShakespeare
ISSN (print)1745-0918
ISSN (online)1745-0926
ScopeLiterature and Literary Theory
Visual Arts and Performing Arts

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