How to format your references using the Terra Nova citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Terra Nova. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hoffman, S., 2004. Save the children: Nature, 430, p. 940–941.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pertsinidis, A. and Ling, X.S., 2001. Diffusion of point defects in two-dimensional colloidal crystals: Nature, 413, p. 147–150.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moritz, R.E., Bitz, C.M. and Steig, E.J., 2002. Dynamics of recent climate change in the Arctic: Science (New York, N.Y.), 297, p. 1497–1502.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Feng, X., Gao, X., Pan, D.-B., Li, B.-W. and Zhang, H., 2014. Unpinning of rotating spiral waves in cardiac tissues by circularly polarized electric fields: Scientific reports, 4, p. 4831.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Porter, A.L. and Cunningham, S.W., 2004. Tech Mining: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Kanosue, K., Oshima, S., Cao, Z.-B. and Oka, K. (Eds.), 2015. Physical Activity, Exercise, Sedentary Behavior and Health: Springer Japan, Tokyo.
A chapter in an edited book
Dyson, A.H., 2007. School Literacy and the Development of a Child Culture: Written Remnants of the “Gusto of Life”. In: International Handbook of Student Experience in Elementary and Secondary School (Thiessen, D., and Cook-Sather, A., eds.) Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, p. 115–142.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Terra Nova.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2015. Particle Accelerator Breakthrough Reduces Their Size By A Factor Of 100: IFLScience,.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1977. Planning Procedures for Computer Resources in the Department of the Interior: U.S. Government Printing Office FGMSD-77-68.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Konggidinata, M.I., 2017. Application and Modifications of Ordered Mesoporous Carbon (OMC) for BTEX Removal: Characterization, Adsorption Mechanisms, and Kinetic Studies [Doctoral dissertation]: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G., 2016. A Bird? A Plane? La Borinqueña! New York Times,, p. MB4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hoffman, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Hoffman, 2004; Pertsinidis and Ling, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pertsinidis and Ling, 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Feng et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleTerra Nova
AbbreviationTerra Nova
ISSN (print)0954-4879
ISSN (online)1365-3121

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