How to format your references using the Terra Nova citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Terra Nova. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Whipple, C., 2012. Plant science. Defining the plant germ line--nature or nurture? Science (New York, N.Y.), 337, p. 301–302.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilkinson, K. and Hershko, A., 2015. Irwin Allan Rose (1926-2015): Nature, 523, p. 532.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wu, B., Chen, J. and Singer, R.H., 2014. Background free imaging of single mRNAs in live cells using split fluorescent proteins: Scientific reports, 4, p. 3615.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Goshima, G., Wollman, R., Goodwin, S.S., Zhang, N., Scholey, J.M., Vale, R.D. and Stuurman, N., 2007. Genes required for mitotic spindle assembly in Drosophila S2 cells: Science (New York, N.Y.), 316, p. 417–421.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris, S.A., 2011. Food and Package Engineering: Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Li, D.-W. (Ed.), 2016. Biology of Microfungi: Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Overmann, J., 2006. Principles of Enrichment, Isolation, Cultivation and Preservation of Prokaryotes. In: The Prokaryotes: Volume 1: Symbiotic associations, Biotechnology, Applied Microbiology (Dworkin, M.,, Falkow, S.,, Rosenberg, E.,, Schleifer, K.-H., and Stackebrandt, E., eds.) Springer, New York, NY, p. 80–136.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Terra Nova.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2016. Astronomers Just Observed ‘Rain’ Falling On A Supermassive Black Hole: IFLScience,.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1985. Pell Grant Validation Imposes Some Costs and Does Not Greatly Reduce Award Errors: New Strategies Are Needed: U.S. Government Printing Office PEMD-85-10.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wyers, M.L., 2015. An Investigation of Teacher Understanding and Perceptions of the Effectiveness of the Use of Learning Targets in the Classroom [Doctoral dissertation]: Lindenwood University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sisario, B., 2017. Turmoil Continues at Pandora Media As C.E.O. Joins Management Exodus: New York Times,, p. B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Whipple, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Whipple, 2012; Wilkinson and Hershko, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilkinson and Hershko, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Goshima et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleTerra Nova
AbbreviationTerra Nova
ISSN (print)0954-4879
ISSN (online)1365-3121

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