How to format your references using the Terra Nova citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Terra Nova. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Caldwell, M., 2007. Careers in behavioral science. Neuromarketing careers: Science (New York, N.Y.), 316, p. 1060–1061.
A journal article with 2 authors
Jin, H.-J. and Weissmüller, J., 2011. A material with electrically tunable strength and flow stress: Science (New York, N.Y.), 332, p. 1179–1182.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhu, M., Yu, X. and Ahlberg, P.E., 2001. A primitive sarcopterygian fish with an eyestalk: Nature, 410, p. 81–84.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Salmeen, A., Andersen, J.N., Myers, M.P., Meng, T.-C., Hinks, J.A., Tonks, N.K. and Barford, D., 2003. Redox regulation of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B involves a sulphenyl-amide intermediate: Nature, 423, p. 769–773.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Blackwood, N., 2014. Advanced Excel Reporting for Management Accountants: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Rutkowski, L., Scherer, R., Tadeusiewicz, R., Zadeh, L.A. and Zurada, J.M. (Eds.), 2010. Artificial Intelligence and Soft Computing: 10th International Conference, ICAISC 2010, Zakopane, Poland, June 13-17, 2010, Part I: Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Brewer, H.B., 2011. High-Density Lipoprotein Metabolism. In: Atlas of Atherosclerosis and Metabolic Syndrome (Grundy, S.M., ed.) Springer, New York, NY, p. 93–111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Terra Nova.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Genetic Tweak Makes Mouse Brain Cells Behave Like Primates’: IFLScience,.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1989. Space Operations: NASA Efforts to Develop and Deploy Advanced Spacecraft Computers: U.S. Government Printing Office IMTEC-89-17.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Heckman, K.A., 2010. Pedogenesis & carbon dynamics across a lithosequence under ponderosa pine [Doctoral dissertation]: University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lane, M.M., 2016. In Forbidden Art, Beauty and Brutality: New York Times,, p. C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Caldwell, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Caldwell, 2007; Jin and Weissmüller, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Jin and Weissmüller, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Salmeen et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleTerra Nova
AbbreviationTerra Nova
ISSN (print)0954-4879
ISSN (online)1365-3121

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