How to format your references using the Physics and Chemistry of the Earth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Greenberg, D.S., 2010. A two-year plan for US science. Nature 467, 781–782.
A journal article with 2 authors
Colton, R.J., Russell, J.N., Jr, 2003. Counterterrorism. Making the world a safer place. Science 299, 1324–1325.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reese, C., Heise, F., Mayer, A., 2005. Trans-SNARE pairing can precede a hemifusion intermediate in intracellular membrane fusion. Nature 436, 410–414.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Gould, D.B., Phalan, F.C., Breedveld, G.J., van Mil, S.E., Smith, R.S., Schimenti, J.C., Aguglia, U., van der Knaap, M.S., Heutink, P., John, S.W.M., 2005. Mutations in Col4a1 cause perinatal cerebral hemorrhage and porencephaly. Science 308, 1167–1171.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Peterson, R.L., 2016. Trading on Sentiment. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Mingos, D.M.P. (Ed.), 2016. The Chemical Bond II: 100 Years Old and Getting Stronger, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Structure and Bonding. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Gong, Z.-T., Bai, Y.-J., Pan, W.-Q., 2014. Preinvex Fuzzy-valued Function and Its Application in Fuzzy Optimization, in: Cao, B.-Y., Nasseri, H. (Eds.), Fuzzy Information & Engineering and Operations Research & Management, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 31–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics and Chemistry of the Earth.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. FDA Considering Releasing Genetically-Modified Mosquitos In Florida [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2012. Information Technology Reform: Progress Made but Future Cloud Computing Efforts Should be Better Planned (No. GAO-12-756). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Viruet, H.B., 2006. Effect of Forklift Operation on Lower Back Pain: An Evidence-Based Approach (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Lee, L., 2008. A Clean Desk, At Least For Starters. New York Times F3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Greenberg, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Colton and Russell, 2003; Greenberg, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Colton and Russell, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Gould et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics and Chemistry of the Earth
AbbreviationPhys. Chem. Earth (2002)
ISSN (print)1474-7065
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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