How to format your references using the Physics and Chemistry of the Earth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Catania, K.C., 2006. Olfaction: underwater “sniffing” by semi-aquatic mammals. Nature 444, 1024–1025.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wilson, L., Head, J.W., Iii, 2007. An integrated model of kimberlite ascent and eruption. Nature 447, 53–57.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lavrov, A.N., Komiya, S., Ando, Y., 2002. Magnetic shape-memory effects in a crystal. Nature 418, 385–386.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Walker, M.L., Burgess, S.A., Sellers, J.R., Wang, F., Hammer, J.A., 3rd, Trinick, J., Knight, P.J., 2000. Two-headed binding of a processive myosin to F-actin. Nature 405, 804–807.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yu, S.F., 2005. Analysis and Design of Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Greefrath, G., 2016. Teaching and Learning Mathematical Modelling: Approaches and Developments from German Speaking Countries, ICME-13 Topical Surveys. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Zorro, Y., 2016. Ciudad Bolivar, Bogota: Scorned Territories, in: Bolay, J.-C., Chenal, J., Pedrazzini, Y. (Eds.), Learning from the Slums for the Development of Emerging Cities, GeoJournal Library. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 47–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics and Chemistry of the Earth.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Elephant Seals Shed Mercury Along With Their Fur [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Aviation Safety: Data Problems Threaten FAA Strides on Safety Analysis System (No. AIMD-95-27). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Elder, R., 2015. A Mixed-Method Investigation of the Missouri Pre-Service Teacher Assessment Pilot Program at a Private Midwestern University (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M., 2010. British Invasion, Only This Time It’s in Retail. New York Times E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Catania, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Catania, 2006; Wilson and Head, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wilson and Head, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Walker et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics and Chemistry of the Earth
AbbreviationPhys. Chem. Earth (2002)
ISSN (print)1474-7065
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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