How to format your references using the Physics and Chemistry of the Earth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P., 2004. The joy of the lab. Nature 431, 227.
A journal article with 2 authors
Smith, M.T.J., Rubinstein, J.L., 2014. Structural biology. Beyond blob-ology. Science 345, 617–619.
A journal article with 3 authors
Boudvillain, M., de Lencastre, A., Pyle, A.M., 2000. A tertiary interaction that links active-site domains to the 5’ splice site of a group II intron. Nature 406, 315–318.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Deléglise, S., Dotsenko, I., Sayrin, C., Bernu, J., Brune, M., Raimond, J.-M., Haroche, S., 2008. Reconstruction of non-classical cavity field states with snapshots of their decoherence. Nature 455, 510–514.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pozen, R., Hamacher, T., Phillips, D., 2011. The Fund Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Cerro, L.F. del, Herzig, A., Mengin, J. (Eds.), 2012. Logics in Artificial Intelligence: 13th European Conference, JELIA 2012, Toulouse, France, September 26-28, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Soria, F., Kazama, S., Sawamoto, M., 2009. Sensitivity Analysis of Distributed Rainfall-Runoff Models, in: Tang, H. (Ed.), Advances in Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering: Proceedings of 16th IAHR-APD Congress and 3rd Symposium of IAHR-ISHS. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 24–28.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics and Chemistry of the Earth.

Blog post
Carpineti, A., 2017. Study Shows Evidence Supporting The Idea Of A Holographic Universe [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1990. International Broadcasting: Construction of U.S. Radio Relay Station in Israel (No. NSIAD-90-123FS). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wansapura, A.N., 2010. The role of alpha sodium,potassium-ATPase isoforms in mediating cardiac hypertrophy in response to endogenous cardiotonic steroids (Doctoral dissertation). University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hollander, S., 2000. Gimelstob Works the Crowd. New York Times D4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Smaglik, 2004; Smith and Rubinstein, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Smith and Rubinstein, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Deléglise et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics and Chemistry of the Earth
AbbreviationPhys. Chem. Earth (2002)
ISSN (print)1474-7065
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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