How to format your references using the Physics and Chemistry of the Earth citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Physics and Chemistry of the Earth. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen, A., 2012. The hard facts. Nature 485, S50-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Faccio, D., Leach, J., 2013. Applied physics. Ghost imaging in three dimensions. Science 340, 821–822.
A journal article with 3 authors
Brose, U., Williams, R.J., Martinez, N.D., 2003. Comment on “Foraging adaptation and the relationship between food-web complexity and stability.” Science 301, 918; author reply 918.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Frappier, A., Sahagian, D., González, L.A., Carpenter, S.J., 2002. El Niño events recorded by stalagmite carbon isotopes. Science 298, 565.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pai MD FACC FRCP Edin, R.G., Varadarajan MD FACC, P., 2014. Echocardiography Board Review. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Huerta, J., Schade, S., Granell, C. (Eds.), 2014. Connecting a Digital Europe Through Location and Place, Lecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Acquisti, A., 2010. From the Economics to the Behavioral Economics of Privacy: A Note, in: Kumar, A., Zhang, D. (Eds.), Ethics and Policy of Biometrics: Third International Conference on Ethics and Policy of Biometrics and International Data Sharing, ICEB 2010, Hong Kong, January 4-5, 2010. Revised Papers, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 23–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Physics and Chemistry of the Earth.

Blog post
Davis, J., 2017. The Maya Civilization May Have Experienced Two Declines Before Collapsing Forever [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2008. Space Acquisitions: DOD’s Goals for Resolving Space Based Infrared System Software Problems Are Ambitious (No. GAO-08-1073). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Powers, D.L., 2010. Teachers’ perceptions of the effects of No Child Left Behind on classroom instruction: A cross case analysis applying Dewey’s theory of instructional methods (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
CHARKES; Mary Jo, J., Reporting, L.S.C., 2009. A Spring Surprise: Openings in Preschools. New York Times WE1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maxmen, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Faccio and Leach, 2013; Maxmen, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Faccio and Leach, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Frappier et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titlePhysics and Chemistry of the Earth
AbbreviationPhys. Chem. Earth (2002)
ISSN (print)1474-7065
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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