How to format your references using the Diseases of Aquatic Organisms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kiessling AA (2005) Eggs alone. Nature 434:145.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yuspa SH, Epstein EH Jr (2005) Cancer. An anchor for tumor cell invasion. Science 307:1727–1728.
A journal article with 3 authors
Roy K, Hunt G, Jablonski D (2009) Phylogenetic conservatism of extinctions in marine bivalves. Science 325:733–737.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Harrison CJ, Corley SB, Moylan EC, Alexander DL, Scotland RW, Langdale JA (2005) Independent recruitment of a conserved developmental mechanism during leaf evolution. Nature 434:509–514.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pashley RM, Karaman ME (2005) Applied Colloid and Surface Chemistry. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Fürnkranz J, Scheffer T, Spiliopoulou M (eds) (2006) Machine Learning: ECML 2006: 17th European Conference on Machine Learning Berlin, Germany, September 18-22, 2006 Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Irwin ML (2011) Obesity and Cancer: Epidemiology. In: Insulin Resistance and Cancer: Epidemiology, Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms and Clinical Implications. Fantus IG (ed) Springer, New York, NY, p 101–110

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diseases of Aquatic Organisms.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Killing Whales For Science: Japan Is Sent Back To The Drawing Board. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2000) Aviation and the Environment: FAA’s Role in Major Airport Noise Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Prejean KD (2015) An Analysis of Corporal Punishment Practices in Texas Public Schools: Race, School District Size, Academic Performance, and Policy Influences. Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly C (2017) Men Who Know What to Do With Sparkly Eye Shadow. New York Times:B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kiessling 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Kiessling 2005, Yuspa & Epstein 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Yuspa & Epstein 2005)
  • Three authors: (Roy et al. 2009)
  • 99 or more authors: (Harrison et al. 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiseases of Aquatic Organisms
AbbreviationDis. Aquat. Organ.
ISSN (print)0177-5103
ISSN (online)1616-1580
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles