How to format your references using the Diseases of Aquatic Organisms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Humphries C (2012) Screening: Testing times. Nature 488:S8-9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Doulatov S & Daley GQ (2013) Development. A stem cell perspective on cellular engineering. Science 342:700–702.
A journal article with 3 authors
Naeem S, Duffy JE & Zavaleta E (2012) The functions of biological diversity in an age of extinction. Science 336:1401–1406.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bignami GF, Caraveo PA, De Luca A & Mereghetti S (2003) The magnetic field of an isolated neutron star from X-ray cyclotron absorption lines. Nature 423:725–727.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Islam MR, Chhetri AB & Khan MM (2010) The Greening of Petroleum Operations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Ratto C, Doglietto GB, Lowry AC, Påhlman L & Romano G eds. (2007) Fecal Incontinence: Diagnosis and Treatment. Springer: Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
Yilbas BS & Shuja SZ (2013) Laser Melting of Two Layer Materials. In: Laser Surface Processing and Model Studies. Materials Forming, Machining and Tribology, S.Z. Shuja (ed). Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg. pp. 59–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diseases of Aquatic Organisms.

Blog post
Davis J (2016) New Species Of Giant Dinosaur Weighed The Same As Eight African Elephants. Available at: (accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2003) Information Technology: Executive office for U.S. Attorneys Needs to Institutionalize Key IT Management Disciplines. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pikiewicz KA (2012) I never knew I had expectations until I realized they weren’t going to come true: A grounded theory study of mothering a chronically ill child.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines GG (2014) Leaping From Marvel to DC in a Single Bound. New York Times:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Humphries 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Humphries 2012; Doulatov & Daley 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Doulatov & Daley 2013)
  • Three authors: (Naeem, Duffy & Zavaleta 2012)
  • 99 or more authors: (Bignami, Caraveo, De Luca & Mereghetti 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiseases of Aquatic Organisms
AbbreviationDis. Aquat. Organ.
ISSN (print)0177-5103
ISSN (online)1616-1580
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles