How to format your references using the Diseases of Aquatic Organisms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Knapp S (2008) Genetics. Celebrating spuds. Science 321:206–207.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bakker HJ, Nienhuys H-K (2002) Delocalization of protons in liquid water. Science 297:587–590.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ridgwell AJ, Kennedy MJ, Caldeira K (2003) Carbonate deposition, climate stability, and Neoproterozoic ice ages. Science 302:859–862.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dickey JO, Marcus SL, de Viron O, Fukumori I (2002) Recent Earth oblateness variations: unraveling climate and postglacial rebound effects. Science 298:1975–1977.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Pollak P (2011) Fine Chemicals. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Zimmermann KF (2007) Immigration Policy and the Labor Market: The German Experience and Lessons for Europe. Bonin H, Hinte H, Fahr R (eds) Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Barbin É, Guitart R (2013) Mathematical Physics in the Style of Gabriel Lamé and the Treatise of Emile Mathieu. In: The Dialectic Relation Between Physics and Mathematics in the XIXth Century. History of Mechanism and Machine Science, Barbin E, Pisano R (eds) Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, p 97–119

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diseases of Aquatic Organisms.

Blog post
Andrews R (2015) DARPA Wants ‘Vampire Drones’ That Vanish In Sunlight. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2014) Public Transportation: Federal Role Key to Rural and Tribal Transit. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kern MW (2012) Regional phylogenetic analysis of the myology of primates and correlates in the human skeleton. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh MW (2011) Panel Hears Complaints On Pensions At Delphi. New York Times:B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Knapp 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Bakker & Nienhuys 2002, Knapp 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Bakker & Nienhuys 2002)
  • Three authors: (Ridgwell et al. 2003)
  • 99 or more authors: (Dickey et al. 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiseases of Aquatic Organisms
AbbreviationDis. Aquat. Organ.
ISSN (print)0177-5103
ISSN (online)1616-1580
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles