How to format your references using the Diseases of Aquatic Organisms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wills M (2006) Chemistry. Better asymmetric reactions. Science 311:619–620.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ohlstein B, Spradling A (2006) The adult Drosophila posterior midgut is maintained by pluripotent stem cells. Nature 439:470–474.
A journal article with 3 authors
Šubelj L, Fiala D, Bajec M (2014) Network-based statistical comparison of citation topology of bibliographic databases. Sci Rep 4:6496.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Chen G-Y, Tang J, Zheng P, Liu Y (2009) CD24 and Siglec-10 selectively repress tissue damage-induced immune responses. Science 323:1722–1725.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quéguiner B (2016) The Biogeochemical Cycle of Silicon in the Ocean. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Burkov VN (2015) Control Mechanisms for Ecological-Economic Systems. Novikov DA, Shchepkin AV (eds) Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Hassett B, Tschinkel Y (2016) Extremal Rays and Automorphisms of Holomorphic Symplectic Varieties. In: K3 Surfaces and Their Moduli. Progress in Mathematics, Faber C, Farkas G, van der Geer G (eds) Springer International Publishing, Cham, p 73–95

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diseases of Aquatic Organisms.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) Poaching Increases African Elephants Born Without Tusks. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Small Business: Proposed Amendments to the Small Business Innovation Research Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wylie RW (2017) Response to Intervention: A Study of Intervention Programs in Rural Secondary Schools. Doctoral dissertation, Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2010) Scouting Report. New York Times:E9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wills 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Ohlstein & Spradling 2006, Wills 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Ohlstein & Spradling 2006)
  • Three authors: (Šubelj et al. 2014)
  • 99 or more authors: (Chen et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiseases of Aquatic Organisms
AbbreviationDis. Aquat. Organ.
ISSN (print)0177-5103
ISSN (online)1616-1580
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles