How to format your references using the Diseases of Aquatic Organisms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zhang L (2015) China must act decisively to eradicate the ivory trade. Nature 527:135.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nisbet MC, Mooney C (2007) Science and society. Framing Science. Science 316:56.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bernasconi NL, Traggiai E, Lanzavecchia A (2002) Maintenance of serological memory by polyclonal activation of human memory B cells. Science 298:2199–2202.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Noda T, Sagara H, Yen A, Takada A, Kida H, Cheng RH, Kawaoka Y (2006) Architecture of ribonucleoprotein complexes in influenza A virus particles. Nature 439:490–492.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Baldi P, Frasconi P, Smyth P (2002) Modeling the Internet and the Web: Probabilistic Methods and Algorithms. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Montani S, Jain LC (eds) (2014) Successful Case-based Reasoning Applications-2. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Mamalis AG (2005) Advanced Manufacturing of Advanced Materials. In: Innovative Superhard Materials and Sustainable Coatings for Advanced Manufacturing: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Innovative Superhard Materials and Sustainable Coatings Kiev, Ukraine 12–15 May 2004. NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry, Lee J, Novikov N, Turkevich V (eds) Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, p 63–80

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diseases of Aquatic Organisms.

Blog post
Andrew E (2016) Klinefelter’s Syndrome: Being Unable To Produce Testosterone Has Serious Implications For Men. (accessed 30 October 2018)


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1996) Programs for Land-Grant Schools. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lotrecchiano GR (2012) Social Mechanisms of Team Science: A Descriptive Case Study Using a Multilevel Systems Perspective Employing Reciprocating Structuration Theory. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Stewart JB (2017) Bewitched by the Tesla Story. New York Times:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zhang 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Nisbet & Mooney 2007, Zhang 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Nisbet & Mooney 2007)
  • Three authors: (Bernasconi et al. 2002)
  • 99 or more authors: (Noda et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiseases of Aquatic Organisms
AbbreviationDis. Aquat. Organ.
ISSN (print)0177-5103
ISSN (online)1616-1580
ScopeAquatic Science
Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Other styles