How to format your references using the Service Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Service Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalibard J (2009) Journal club. A quantum-gas specialist learns about crystals from his own science. Nature 457(7230):639.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hunt A, Evan G (2001) Apoptosis. Till death us do part. Science 293(5536):1784–1785.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cziczo DJ, Thomson DS, Murphy DM (2001) Ablation, flux, and atmospheric implications of meteors inferred from stratospheric aerosol. Science 291(5509):1772–1775.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Biron KE, Dickstein DL, Gopaul R, Fenninger F, Jefferies WA (2013) Cessation of neoangiogenesis in Alzheimer’s disease follows amyloid-beta immunization. Sci. Rep. 3:1354.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chen X, Parini CG, Collins B, Yao Y, Ur Rehman M (2012) Antennas for Global Navigation Satellite Systems (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK).
An edited book
Nash JF Jr, Rassias MT eds. (2016) Open Problems in Mathematics (Springer International Publishing, Cham).
A chapter in an edited book
Vilaça R, Cruz F, Oliveira R (2010) On the Expressiveness and Trade-Offs of Large Scale Tuple Stores. Meersman R, Dillon T, Herrero P, eds. On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems, OTM 2010: Confederated International Conferences: CoopIS, IS, DOA and ODBASE, Hersonissos, Crete, Greece, October 25-29, 2010, Proceedings, Part II. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg), 727–744.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Service Science.

Blog post
Fang J (2016) Dung Beetles Evolved With Dinosaurs. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Flexible Funding Continues to Play a Role in Supporting State and Local Transportation Priorities (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kreisel M (2015) Gabor frames for quasicrystals and K-theory. Doctoral dissertation. (University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J (2017) Celebrating a Honey Harvest in the Center of Hudson Yards. New York Times (September 10).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dalibard 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Dalibard 2009, Hunt and Evan 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hunt and Evan 2001)
  • Three or more authors: (Biron et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleService Science
ISSN (online)2164-3970

Other styles