How to format your references using the Service Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Service Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Harwood C (2008) A microbiologist hopes to disrupt bacterial “decisions.” Nature 455(7209):5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chen X, Yan GY (2014) Semi-supervised learning for potential human microRNA-disease associations inference. Sci. Rep. 4:5501.
A journal article with 3 authors
Theise ND, Krause DS, Sharkis S (2003) Comment on “Little evidence for developmental plasticity of adult hematopoietic stem cells.” Science 299(5611):1317; author reply 1317.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Hsieh D, Qian D, Wray L, Xia Y, Hor YS, Cava RJ, Hasan MZ (2008) A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase. Nature 452(7190):970–974.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barker P, Chang J (2013) Basic Family Therapy (John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK).
An edited book
Salah AA, Kröse BJA, Cook DJ eds. (2015) Human Behavior Understanding: 6th International Workshop, HBU 2015, Osaka, Japan, September 8, 2015, Proceedings (Springer International Publishing, Cham).
A chapter in an edited book
Raman M, Ambalam P, Doble M (2016) Bioactive Carbohydrate: Prebiotics and Colorectal Cancer. Ambalam P, Doble M, eds. Probiotics and Bioactive Carbohydrates in Colon Cancer Management. (Springer India, New Delhi), 57–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Service Science.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) A Man Was Cured Of HIV In 2008, And Hardly Anyone Knows About It. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018), .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Tactical Airlift: Issues Concerning Air Force Plans for Pacific Distribution System (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mahmud S (2017) Comparing the Performance of Bottom-Moored and Unmanned Surface Vehicle Towed Passive Acoustic Monitoring Platforms for Marine Mammal Detections. Doctoral dissertation. (University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2010) From India, Bridal Baubles. New York Times (July 22).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Harwood 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Chen and Yan 2014, Harwood 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chen and Yan 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Hsieh et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleService Science
ISSN (online)2164-3970

Other styles