How to format your references using the Service Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Service Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kumar S (2012) Extinction need not be forever. Nature 492(7427):9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hidalgo C, Donoso P (2011) Cell signaling. Getting to the heart of mechanotransduction. Science 333(6048):1388–1390.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schaller T, Goujon C, Malim MH (2012) AIDS/HIV. HIV interplay with SAMHD1. Science 335(6074):1313–1314.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Dalton AB, Collins S, Muñoz E, Razal JM, Ebron VH, Ferraris JP, Coleman JN, Kim BG, Baughman RH (2003) Super-tough carbon-nanotube fibres. Nature 423(6941):703.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Andersson C, Freeman D, James I, Johnston A, Ljung S (2006) Mobile Media and Applications - From Concept to Cash (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK).
An edited book
U SP (2006) Design of Very High-Frequency Multirate Switched-Capacitor Circuits: Extending the Boundaries of CMOS Analog Front-End Filtering Martins RP, Franca JE da, eds. (Springer US, Boston, MA).
A chapter in an edited book
Hirao T (2015) Conclusions. Hirao T, ed. Functionalized Redox Systems: Synthetic Reactions and Design of π- and Bio-Conjugates. (Springer Japan, Tokyo), 151–152.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Service Science.

Blog post
Fang J (2014) Glacial Meltwater on Martian Volcano May Have Harbored Life. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1994) Airport Improvement Program: Better Management Needed for Funds Provided Under Letters of Intent (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davenport CS (2017) Dynamic Modeling Framework to Predict Instantaneous Status of a Tractor-Dolly System. Doctoral dissertation. (Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M (2011) New Pose On the Mat: The Sleuth. New York Times (December 4).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kumar 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Hidalgo and Donoso 2011, Kumar 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hidalgo and Donoso 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Dalton et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleService Science
ISSN (online)2164-3970

Other styles