How to format your references using the Service Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Service Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kanthor R (2014) Diagnostics: Detection drives defence. Nature 509(7498):S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lupulescu AI, Rimer JD (2014) In situ imaging of silicalite-1 surface growth reveals the mechanism of crystallization. Science 344(6185):729–732.
A journal article with 3 authors
Verbeeck J, Tian H, Schattschneider P (2010) Production and application of electron vortex beams. Nature 467(7313):301–304.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Noad MJ, Cato DH, Bryden MM, Jenner MN, Jenner KC (2000) Cultural revolution in whale songs. Nature 408(6812):537.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mihajlovic-Madzarevic V (2010) Clinical Trials Audit Preparation (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ).
An edited book
Nelson LS (2007) Handbook of Poisonous and Injurious Plants Second Edition. Shih RD, Balick MJ, eds. (Springer US, Boston, MA).
A chapter in an edited book
Postema PG, Christiaans I, Hofman N, Alders M, Koopmann TT, Bezzina CR, Loh P, Zeppenfeld K, Volders PGA, Wilde AAM (2014) Founder mutations in the Netherlands: familial idiopathic ventricular fibrillation and DPP6*. Wilde Arthur A. M., Tintelen JP van, eds. Founder mutations in inherited cardiac diseases in the Netherlands. (Bohn Stafleu van Loghum, Houten), 29–35.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Service Science.

Blog post
Fang J (2015) Earliest Evidence of Man-Made Pollution Found in Tartar on 400,000-Year-Old Teeth. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1999) Environmental Protection: Research and Development of Plasma Arc Technology Used to Treat Hazardous Waste (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Krug KA (2009) Critical literacy in the face of a mandated curriculum: Can children read beyond the text? Doctoral dissertation. (George Washington University, Washington, DC).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2002) Judge Won’t Lock the Stable Until Horses Have a Home. New York Times (September 29).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kanthor 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Kanthor 2014, Lupulescu and Rimer 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lupulescu and Rimer 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Noad et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleService Science
ISSN (online)2164-3970

Other styles