How to format your references using the Service Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Service Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lemmon JP (2015) Energy: Reimagine fuel cells. Nature 525(7570):447–449.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tomita M, Murakami M (2003) High-temperature superconductor bulk magnets that can trap magnetic fields of over 17 tesla at 29 K. Nature 421(6922):517–520.
A journal article with 3 authors
Moynier F, Yin QZ, Schauble E (2011) Isotopic evidence of Cr partitioning into Earth’s core. Science 331(6023):1417–1420.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Xiao H, Murakami H, Suga H, Ferré-D’Amaré AR (2008) Structural basis of specific tRNA aminoacylation by a small in vitro selected ribozyme. Nature 454(7202):358–361.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Wang JJ (2014) Hydraulic Fracturing in Earth-Rock Fill DAMS (John Wiley & Sons, Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore).
An edited book
Rhee DJ (2011) Ophthalmologic Drug Guide 2nd ed. Colby KA, Sobrin L, Rapuano CJ, eds. (Springer, New York, NY).
A chapter in an edited book
Tahirovic A, Magnani G (2013) Conclusion. Magnani G, ed. Passivity-Based Model Predictive Control for Mobile Vehicle Motion Planning. SpringerBriefs in Electrical and Computer Engineering. (Springer, London), 53–54.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Service Science.

Blog post
Luntz S (2017) What Are The Signs Of Biased Science Papers? IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018),


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Internet Protocol Version 6: Federal Government in Early Stages of Transition and Key Challenges Remain (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gilman DG (2013) Comparative analysis of corporate culture in a multinational organization. Doctoral dissertation. (Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Yablonsky L (2012) Style Provocateurs. New York Times (March 4).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lemmon 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Lemmon 2015, Tomita and Murakami 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tomita and Murakami 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Xiao et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleService Science
ISSN (online)2164-3970

Other styles