How to format your references using the Service Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Service Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hodes G (2013) Applied physics. Perovskite-based solar cells. Science 342(6156):317–318.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elderfield H, Rickaby RE (2000) Oceanic Cd/P ratio and nutrient utilization in the glacial Southern Ocean. Nature 405(6784):305–310.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhang Q, Li Y, Tsien RW (2009) The dynamic control of kiss-and-run and vesicular reuse probed with single nanoparticles. Science 323(5920):1448–1453.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Murphy WJ, Eizirik E, Johnson WE, Zhang YP, Ryder OA, O’Brien SJ (2001) Molecular phylogenetics and the origins of placental mammals. Nature 409(6820):614–618.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rehder D (2010) Chemistry in Space (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany).
An edited book
Bachrach DG (2016) More Than a Showroom: Strategies for Winning Back Online Shoppers Ogilvie J, Rapp A, Calamusa J, eds. (Palgrave Macmillan US, New York, NY).
A chapter in an edited book
Stefanov H, Jansen S, Batenburg R, van Heusden E, Khadka R (2012) How to Do Successful Chargeback for Cloud Services. Vanmechelen K, Altmann J, Rana OF, eds. Economics of Grids, Clouds, Systems, and Services: 8th International Workshop, GECON 2011, Paphos, Cyprus, December 5, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. (Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg), 61–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Service Science.

Blog post
Andrew E (2014) Upcoming Battery Will Charge Phones And Electric Cars in Minutes. IFLScience. Retrieved (October 30, 2018), .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2010) For-Profit Schools: Large Schools and Schools that Specialize in Healthcare Are More Likely to Rely Heavily on Federal Student Aid (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Accortt EE (2009) Frontal alpha electroencephalography (EEG) asymmetry as a risk factor for pre-menstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD); a psychophysiological and family history approach. Doctoral dissertation. (University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M (2017) With a Little Help From His Friends. New York Times (October 3).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hodes 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Elderfield and Rickaby 2000, Hodes 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Elderfield and Rickaby 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Murphy et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleService Science
ISSN (online)2164-3970

Other styles