How to format your references using the Separations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Separations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zeilinger, A. The Quantum Centennial. Nature 2000, 408, 639–641.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hammock, E.A.D.; Young, L.J. Microsatellite Instability Generates Diversity in Brain and Sociobehavioral Traits. Science 2005, 308, 1630–1634.
A journal article with 3 authors
McDonald, J.J.; Teder-Sälejärvi, W.A.; Ward, L.M. Multisensory Integration and Crossmodal Attention Effects in the Human Brain. Science 2001, 292, 1791.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Dai, Z.; Keating, E.; Bacon, D.; Viswanathan, H.; Stauffer, P.; Jordan, A.; Pawar, R. Probabilistic Evaluation of Shallow Groundwater Resources at a Hypothetical Carbon Sequestration Site. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 4006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Adámek, J. Foundations of Coding; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 1991; ISBN 9781118033265.
An edited book
Lowes, T. Pre-Hospital Anesthesia Handbook; Gospel, A., Griffiths, A., Henning, J., Eds.; 2nd ed. 2016.; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016; ISBN 9783319230894.
A chapter in an edited book
Elder, J.H. Perceptual Organization of Shape. In Shape Perception in Human and Computer Vision: An Interdisciplinary Perspective; Dickinson, S.J., Pizlo, Z., Eds.; Springer: London, 2013; pp. 71–83 ISBN 9781447151944.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Separations.

Blog post
Taub, B. Long Term Cocaine And Crystal Meth Use May Hinder Moral Judgement (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Intercity Passenger Rail: Amtrak’s Management of Northeast Corridor Improvements Demonstrates Need for Applying Best Practices; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2004;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brown, O. Business and IT Leaders’ Behavioral Affects on Alignment and Project Outcome: A Comparative Leadership Study. Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix: Phoenix, AZ, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff, J. Exploring the Sea, No Sailors Needed. New York Times 2016, B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSeparations
ISSN (online)2297-8739

Other styles