How to format your references using the Separations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Separations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schindel, D.E. Biology without Borders. Nature 2010, 467, 779–781.
A journal article with 2 authors
Boomsma, J.J.; Pamilo, P. Retrospective. Rossiter H. Crozier (1943-2009). Science 2010, 327, 45.
A journal article with 3 authors
Daeschler, E.B.; Shubin, N.H.; Jenkins, F.A., Jr A Devonian Tetrapod-like Fish and the Evolution of the Tetrapod Body Plan. Nature 2006, 440, 757–763.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Bartels, C.; Hock, C.; Huwer, J.; Kuhnen, R.; Schwöbel, J.; von Issendorff, B. Probing the Angular Momentum Character of the Valence Orbitals of Free Sodium Nanoclusters. Science 2009, 323, 1323–1327.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Early, W.F., II Contractor and Client Relations to Assure Process Safety; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2010; ISBN 9780470935132.
An edited book
Advances in Harmonic Analysis and Operator Theory: The Stefan Samko Anniversary Volume; Almeida, A., Castro, L., Speck, F.-O., Eds.; Operator Theory: Advances and Applications; Springer: Basel, 2013; Vol. 229; ISBN 9783034805155.
A chapter in an edited book
Kearney, A. How Are Disabled Students Excluded from and Within School. In Exclusion from and Within School: Issues and Solutions; Kearney, A., Ed.; SensePublishers: Rotterdam, 2011; pp. 79–91 ISBN 9789460914997.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Separations.

Blog post
Andrew, E. The Netherlands’ Railway Aims To Run On 100% Wind Power By 2018 (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office The National Institute of Education Should Further Increase Minority and Female Participation in Its Activities; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1980;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cline, D. Criminal Faces: Clinical Experiences of Forensic Artists. Doctoral dissertation, Pacifica Graduate Institute: Carpinteria, CA, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. Cheesecakes to Share, or Not. New York Times 2007, 14NJ14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSeparations
ISSN (online)2297-8739

Other styles