How to format your references using the Separations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Separations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ron, D. Cell Biology. Stressed Cells Cope with Protein Overload. Science 2006, 313, 52–53.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rioux, J.D.; Abbas, A.K. Paths to Understanding the Genetic Basis of Autoimmune Disease. Nature 2005, 435, 584–589.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wang, C.-W.; Ka, S.-M.; Chen, A. Robust Image Registration of Biological Microscopic Images. Sci. Rep. 2014, 4, 6050.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, H.; Gilbert, B.; Huang, F.; Banfield, J.F. Water-Driven Structure Transformation in Nanoparticles at Room Temperature. Nature 2003, 424, 1025–1029.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fischer, D.J.; Treister, N.S.; Pinto, A. Risk Assessment and Oral Diagnostics in Clinical Dentistry; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: West Sussex, UK, 2013; ISBN 9781118783283.
An edited book
Shedding Light on Indoor Tanning; Heckman, C.J., Manne, S.L., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2012; ISBN 9789400720473.
A chapter in an edited book
Bosso, N.; Spiryagin, M.; Gugliotta, A.; Somà, A. Design of Scaled Roller Rigs. In Mechatronic Modeling of Real-Time Wheel-Rail Contact; Spiryagin, M., Gugliotta, A., Somà, A., Eds.; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013; pp. 37–54 ISBN 9783642362453.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Separations.

Blog post
Carpineti, A. Tatooine Planets Orbiting Two Stars Are More Likely To Survive Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Stronger Measures Needed To Insure That Medical Diathermy Devices Are Safe and Effective; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1976;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chavez, G. Creating Integrated, Inquiry Science Lessons Based on Early Childhood Science Activities. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach: Long Beach, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
As Told to WHY WE TRAVEL | MOSCOW. New York Times 2007, 517.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSeparations
ISSN (online)2297-8739

Other styles