How to format your references using the Separations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Separations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mi, B. Materials science. Graphene oxide membranes for ionic and molecular sieving. Science 2014, 343, 740–742.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dekkers, M.P.J.; Barde, Y.-A. Developmental biology. Programmed cell death in neuronal development. Science 2013, 340, 39–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Briggman, K.L.; Abarbanel, H.D.I.; Kristan, W.B., Jr Optical imaging of neuronal populations during decision-making. Science 2005, 307, 896–901.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, Y.; Cao, H.; Zhang, G.; Bougouffa, S.; Lee, O.O.; Al-Suwailem, A.; Qian, P.-Y. Autotrophic microbe metagenomes and metabolic pathways differentiate adjacent Red Sea brine pools. Sci. Rep. 2013, 3, 1748.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Daïan, J.-F. Equilibrium and Transfer in Porous Media 2; John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2014; ISBN 9781118931257.
An edited book
E-Science and Information Management: Third International Symposium on Information Management in a Changing World, IMCW 2012, Ankara, Turkey, September 19-21, 2012. Proceedings; Kurbanoğlu, S., Al, U., Erdoğan, P.L., Tonta, Y., Uçak, N., Eds.; Communications in Computer and Information Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; Vol. 317; ISBN 9783642332982.
A chapter in an edited book
Aleksandrowicz, G.; Ivrii, A.; Margalit, O.; Rasin, D. Generating Modulo-2 Linear Invariants for Hardware Model Checking. In Hardware and Software: Verification and Testing: 10th International Haifa Verification Conference, HVC 2014, Haifa, Israel, November 18-20, 2014. Proceedings; Yahav, E., Ed.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014; pp. 54–67 ISBN 9783319133379.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Separations.

Blog post
Andrew, D. Five Amazing Ways Plants Have Created New Technologies (accessed on Oct 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office National Aero-Space Plane: A Need for Program Direction and Funding Decisions; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1993;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Subramanian, K. Mechanisms and Effect of Microstructure on High Temperature Deformation of Gamma-TiAl Based Alloys. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University: Columbus, OH, 2003.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D. Deconstruct This! New York Times 2002, 78.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSeparations
ISSN (online)2297-8739

Other styles