How to format your references using the Separations citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Separations. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bankaitis, V.A. Cell Biology. Slick Recruitment to the Golgi. Science 2002, 295, 290–291.
A journal article with 2 authors
Ronald, P.C.; Beutler, B. Plant and Animal Sensors of Conserved Microbial Signatures. Science 2010, 330, 1061–1064.
A journal article with 3 authors
Basch, M.L.; Bronner-Fraser, M.; García-Castro, M.I. Specification of the Neural Crest Occurs during Gastrulation and Requires Pax7. Nature 2006, 441, 218–222.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sane, S.P.; Dieudonné, A.; Willis, M.A.; Daniel, T.L. Antennal Mechanosensors Mediate Flight Control in Moths. Science 2007, 315, 863–866.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gerardi, M.H.; Zimmerman, M.C. Wastewater Pathogens; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 2004; ISBN 9780471710431.
An edited book
Magnetic Nanostructures in Modern Technology: Spintronics, Magnetic MEMS and Recording; Azzerboni, B., Asti, G., Pareti, L., Ghidini, M., Eds.; Springer Netherlands: Dordrecht, 2008; ISBN 9781402063367.
A chapter in an edited book
Hannachi, L.; Asfari, O.; Benblidia, N.; Bentayeb, F.; Kabachi, N.; Boussaid, O. Community Extraction Based on Topic-Driven-Model for Clustering Users Tweets. In Advanced Data Mining and Applications: 8th International Conference, ADMA 2012, Nanjing, China, December 15-18, 2012. Proceedings; Zhou, S., Zhang, S., Karypis, G., Eds.; Lecture Notes in Computer Science; Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012; pp. 39–51 ISBN 9783642355264.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Separations.

Blog post
Fang, J. The Same Gene Blackens Moths And Colors Butterflies Available online: (accessed on 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Electronic Government: Additional OMB Leadership Needed to Optimize Use of New Federal Employee Identification Cards; U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 2008;

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Al-Kharafi, H.T. TF-CBT with the Pediatric Medical Population: A Modification. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University: Malibu, CA, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, D. BASEBALL BOOKS IN BRIEF. New York Times 2003, 718.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSeparations
ISSN (online)2297-8739

Other styles