How to format your references using the Operations Research Perspectives citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Operations Research Perspectives. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marx V. Epigenetics: Reading the second genomic code. Nature 2012;491:143–7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Foulger GR, Natland JH. Geology. Is “hotspot” volcanism a consequence of plate tectonics? Science 2003;300:921–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Randau L, Schröder I, Söll D. Life without RNase P. Nature 2008;453:120–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Li M, Tou WI, Zhou H, Li F, Ren H, Chen CY-C, et al. Developing hypothetical inhibition mechanism of novel urea transporter B inhibitor. Sci Rep 2014;4:5775.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mead JM, Gruneberg S. Programme Procurement in Construction. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2013.
An edited book
Paterson MS. Experimental Rock Deformation — The Brittle Field. Second, Completely Revised and Updated Edition. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Nakanishi H, Islam MF. Quantum Percolation in Two Dimensions. In: Chakrabarti BK, Bardhan KK, Sen AK, editors. Quantum and Semi-classical Percolation and Breakdown in Disordered Solids, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009, p. 1–26.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Operations Research Perspectives.

Blog post
Andrew E. BREAKING: NASA-Contracted Rocket Explodes Shortly After Take-Off. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Small Business Innovation Research: SBA Should Work with Agencies to Improve the Data Available for Program Evaluation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rodriguez JM. A recruitment campaign for Latino non-kin foster parents: A grant proposal. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2011.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. A Block of Fabled Theaters May Get an Extended Run. New York Times 2003:147.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleOperations Research Perspectives
AbbreviationOper. Res. Perspect.
ISSN (print)2214-7160

Other styles