How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Medical Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Medical Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Graham-Rowe D. Risk analysis: A dense issue. Nature. 2012 May 30;485(7400):S60-1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Rinn J, Guttman M. RNA Function. RNA and dynamic nuclear organization. Science. 2014 Sep 12;345(6202):1240–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rodell M, Velicogna I, Famiglietti JS. Satellite-based estimates of groundwater depletion in India. Nature. 2009 Aug 20;460(7258):999–1002.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Heekeren HR, Marrett S, Bandettini PA, Ungerleider LG. A general mechanism for perceptual decision-making in the human brain. Nature. 2004 Oct 14;431(7010):859–62.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Loveland WD, Morrissey DJ, Seaborg GT. Modern Nuclear Chemistry. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Luca A de. Teoria degli Automi Finiti. D’Alessandro F, editor. Milano: Springer; 2013. XI, 323 pagg. (UNITEXT; vol. 68).
A chapter in an edited book
Wegert E, Semmler G. On the Normality of Topological Target Manifolds for Riemann-Hilbert Problems. In: Barsegian GA, Begehr HGW, editors. Topics in Analysis and its Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005. p. 61–8. (NATO Science Series II: Mathematics, Physics and Chemistry).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Medical Informatics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Lone Porcupine Skillfully Defends Himself Against 17 Hungry Lions [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Status and Challenges of Employee Exchange Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Dec. Report No.: GAO-07-216.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hester ET. Impact of geomorphic structures on hyporheic exchange, temperature, and ecological processes in streams [Doctoral dissertation]. [Chapel Hill, NC]: University of North Carolina; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Yoga’s Serious. Except When It’s Not. New York Times. 2010 Jul 29;E6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Medical Informatics
ISSN (print)0973-9254
ISSN (online)0973-0397

Other styles