How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Medical Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Medical Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Keszthelyi LP. Planetary science: Europa awakening. Nature. 2011 Nov 16;479(7374):485.
A journal article with 2 authors
Groisman A, Steinberg V V. Elastic turbulence in a polymer solution flow. Nature. 2000 May 4;405(6782):53–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Huffard CL, Boneka F, Full RJ. Underwater bipedal locomotion by octopuses in disguise. Science. 2005 Mar 25;307(5717):1927.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Metz M, Piliponsky AM, Chen C-C, Lammel V, Abrink M, Pejler G, et al. Mast cells can enhance resistance to snake and honeybee venoms. Science. 2006 Jul 28;313(5786):526–30.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sox HC, Higgins MC, Owens DK. Medical Decision Making. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Martelletti P, Steiner TJ, editors. Handbook of Headache: Practical Management. Milano: Springer; 2011. XXVI, 760p. 26 illus.. eReference.
A chapter in an edited book
Hawkes D, Kennell J, Booth P, Abson E. The Impact of Motivation Factors on Spending at a Public Sector Festivals Programme. In: Matias Á, Nijkamp P, Romão J, editors. Impact Assessment in Tourism Economics. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 67–80.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Medical Informatics.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Dog Robot Can Run and Climb Just Like The Real Thing [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Student Financial Aid Systems: Absence of Guiding Architecture Reduces Efficiency, Ease of Use. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1997 Jul. Report No.: T-AIMD-97-147.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wiggins BB. Using Induced Signals to Develop a Position-Sensitive Microchannel Plate Detector [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron J. Peter Allen Dies at 96; Longtime Host of Met Opera’s Radio Broadcasts. New York Times. 2016 Oct 10;B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Medical Informatics
ISSN (print)0973-9254
ISSN (online)0973-0397

Other styles