How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Medical Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Medical Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alvarez M. Time for a change. Nature. 2007 Feb 8;445(7128):682.
A journal article with 2 authors
Groves JT, Boaz NC. Biochemistry. Fishing for peroxidase protons. Science. 2014 Jul 11;345(6193):142–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Murdoch W, Briggs CJ, Swarbrick S. Host suppression and stability in a parasitoid-host system: experimental demonstration. Science. 2005 Jul 22;309(5734):610–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Elsig J, Schmitt J, Leuenberger D, Schneider R, Eyer M, Leuenberger M, et al. Stable isotope constraints on Holocene carbon cycle changes from an Antarctic ice core. Nature. 2009 Sep 24;461(7263):507–10.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Roy D, Rao GV. Elements of Structural Dynamics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Baglieri D, Metallo C, Rossignoli C, Pezzillo Iacono M, editors. Information Systems, Management, Organization and Control: Smart Practices and Effects. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014. VII, 304 p. 50 illus. (Lecture Notes in Information Systems and Organisation; vol. 6).
A chapter in an edited book
Brandstaetter T, Bamber D, Weir D. ‘Wasta’: Triadic Trust in Jordanian Business. In: Ramady MA, editor. The Political Economy of Wasta: Use and Abuse of Social Capital Networking. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 65–78.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Medical Informatics.

Blog post
Andrews R. Climate Change Will Lead To Grim Future For Marine Ecosystems [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. S. 1657 and H.R. 4564, Research and Development Acts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1981 Sep. Report No.: 116442.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bennett CA. The stigma of mental illness as experienced by mental health professionals as patients: A phenomenological study [Doctoral dissertation]. [Carpinteria, CA]: Pacifica Graduate Institute; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Hollander S. A Princeton Senior Is Setting the Bar Higher. New York Times. 2002 May 7;D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Medical Informatics
ISSN (print)0973-9254
ISSN (online)0973-0397

Other styles