How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Medical Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Medical Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Michel-Kerjan E. We must build resilience into our communities. Nature. 2015 Aug 27;524(7566):389.
A journal article with 2 authors
Campbell IH, O’Neill HSC. Evidence against a chondritic Earth. Nature. 2012 Mar 28;483(7391):553–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Viswanathan SR, Daley GQ, Gregory RI. Selective blockade of microRNA processing by Lin28. Science. 2008 Apr 4;320(5872):97–100.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ji S, Wang F, Zhu L, Xu X, Wang Z, Sun X. Non-critical phase-matching fourth harmonic generation of a 1053-nm laser in an ADP crystal. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1605.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bintliff J. The Complete Archaeology of Greece. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Camarinha-Matos LM, Barrento NS, Mendonça R, editors. Technological Innovation for Collective Awareness Systems: 5th IFIP WG 5.5/SOCOLNET Doctoral Conference on Computing, Electrical and Industrial Systems, DoCEIS 2014, Costa de Caparica, Portugal, April 7-9, 2014. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014. XVIII, 621 p. 324 illus. (IFIP Advances in Information and Communication Technology; vol. 423).
A chapter in an edited book
Kosec M, Malič B, Benčan A, Rojac T. KNN-Based Piezoelectric Ceramics. In: Safari A, Akdoğan EK, editors. Piezoelectric and Acoustic Materials for Transducer Applications. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2008. p. 81–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Medical Informatics.

Blog post
Hale T. Australian Teens Catch “Sharknado” Moment On Camera. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Data Transparency: Oversight Needed to Address Underreporting and Inconsistencies on Federal Award Website. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014 Jun. Report No.: GAO-14-476.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Baker BR. Schizophrenia-spectrum behavior and peer responses to individuals with social anhedonia [Doctoral dissertation]. [College Park, MD]: University of Maryland, College Park; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Qiu L. An Adoring Crowd, And a Dozen Things That Aren’t True. New York Times. 2017 Jun 22;A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Medical Informatics
ISSN (print)0973-9254
ISSN (online)0973-0397

Other styles