How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Medical Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Medical Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Morse SS. Retrospective: Joshua Lederberg (1925-2008). Science. 2008 Mar 7;319(5868):1351.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Roth A, Diederichs S. Molecular biology: Rap and chirp about X inactivation. Nature. 2015 May 14;521(7551):170–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Sackmann EK, Fulton AL, Beebe DJ. The present and future role of microfluidics in biomedical research. Nature. 2014 Mar 13;507(7491):181–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Butts DA, Weng C, Jin J, Yeh C-I, Lesica NA, Alonso J-M, et al. Temporal precision in the neural code and the timescales of natural vision. Nature. 2007 Sep 6;449(7158):92–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Cornier J, Owen A, Kwade A, Van de Voorde M. Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology: Innovation and Production. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2017.
An edited book
1.
Somers MJ, Hayward M, editors. Fencing for Conservation: Restriction of Evolutionary Potential or a Riposte to Threatening Processes? New York, NY: Springer; 2012. XVI, 320 p.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Zaccone A, Melzi C. The PRIM (Integrated Regional Programme for Risk Assessment and Management) by Lombardy Region. In: Brugnoli A, editor. Dangerous Materials: Control, Risk Prevention and Crisis Management: From New Global Threats to New Global Responses: A Picture of Transition. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. p. 71–7. (NATO Science for Peace and Security Series C: Environmental Security).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Medical Informatics.

Blog post
1.
Davis J. New Brightly Colored Lizard Named After David Attenborough [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/new-brightly-colored-lizard-named-after-david-attenborough/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Social Security: Observations on Improving Distribution of Death Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Nov. Report No.: GAO-02-233T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Bennett AL. An Empirical Longitudinal Analysis of Agile Methodologies and Firm Financial Performance [Doctoral dissertation]. [Washington, DC]: George Washington University; 2019.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Hollander S. Fame on the Half Shell. New York Times. 2009 May 3;CY1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Medical Informatics
ISSN (print)0973-9254
ISSN (online)0973-0397
Scope

Other styles