How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Medical Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Medical Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schaetz T. Quantum physics: Entanglement beyond identical ions. Nature. 2015 Dec 17;528(7582):337–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Carter NJ, Cross RA. Mechanics of the kinesin step. Nature. 2005 May 19;435(7040):308–12.
A journal article with 3 authors
Palikaras K, Lionaki E, Tavernarakis N. Coordination of mitophagy and mitochondrial biogenesis during ageing in C. elegans. Nature. 2015 May 28;521(7553):525–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Siok WT, Perfetti CA, Jin Z, Tan LH. Biological abnormality of impaired reading is constrained by culture. Nature. 2004 Sep 2;431(7004):71–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Peterson RL, Murtha FF. MarketPsych. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Gürlebeck K. Application of Holomorphic Functions in Two and Higher Dimensions. Habetha K, Sprößig W, editors. Basel: Springer; 2016. XV, 390 p. 7 illus., 3 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Bezerra LCT, López-Ibáñez M, Stützle T. To DE or Not to DE? Multi-objective Differential Evolution Revisited from a Component-Wise Perspective. In: Gaspar-Cunha A, Henggeler Antunes C, Coello CC, editors. Evolutionary Multi-Criterion Optimization: 8th International Conference, EMO 2015, Guimarães, Portugal, March 29 --April 1, 2015 Proceedings, Part I. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. p. 48–63. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Medical Informatics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Six Foods That Increase Or Decrease Your Risk Of Cancer. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer Technology: Air Attack Warning System Cannot Process All Radar Track Data. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 May. Report No.: IMTEC-91-15.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cao L. A Field-Scale Simulation of the Reversible Nanoparticle Adsorption for Enhancing Oil Recovery Using Hydrophilic Nanofluids [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cordes K. Mountaineering’s Greatest Climb Unravels. New York Times. 2015 Feb 22;SR5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Medical Informatics
ISSN (print)0973-9254
ISSN (online)0973-0397

Other styles