How to format your references using the Indian Journal of Medical Informatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Indian Journal of Medical Informatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Rausher MD. Co-evolution and plant resistance to natural enemies. Nature. 2001 Jun 14;411(6839):857–64.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Cheney RE, Rodriguez OC. Cell biology. A switch to release the motor. Science. 2001 Aug 17;293(5533):1263–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Zhang Z, Huang X, Lu H. Association between red blood cell transfusion and bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants. Sci Rep. 2014 Mar 11;4:4340.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Hagleitner C, Hierlemann A, Lange D, Kummer A, Kerness N, Brand O, et al. Smart single-chip gas sensor microsystem. Nature. 2001 Nov 15;414(6861):293–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Arduin P-E, Grundstein M, Rosenthal-Sabroux C. Information and Knowledge System. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2015.
An edited book
1.
Nixon MS. Human Identification Based on Gait. Tan T, Chellappa R, editors. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2006. X, 188 p. 101 illus. (International Series on Biometrics; vol. 4).
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Brake L, Turner MW. Rebranding the News of the World: 1891 and After. In: Brake L, Kaul C, Turner MW, editors. The News of the World and the British Press, 1843–2011: Journalism for the Rich, Journalism for the Poor. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. p. 43–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Indian Journal of Medical Informatics.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Rats Recognize Expressions Of Pain [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from: https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/rats-recognize-pain-expressions/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Bridge Infrastructure: Matching the Resources to the Need. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991 Jul. Report No.: RCED-91-167.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Vado PF. Foster Care Independence Act of 1999: A policy analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Dorman JL. Art Deco Comfort by the French Quarter. New York Times. 2017 Jul 29;TR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIndian Journal of Medical Informatics
ISSN (print)0973-9254
ISSN (online)0973-0397
Scope

Other styles