How to format your references using the Separation and Purification Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Separation and Purification Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
V. Ambros, The functions of animal microRNAs, Nature. 431 (2004) 350–355.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.N. Miller, S.B. Long, Crystal structure of the human two-pore domain potassium channel K2P1, Science. 335 (2012) 432–436.
A journal article with 3 authors
H.O. Karnath, S. Ferber, M. Himmelbach, Spatial awareness is a function of the temporal not the posterior parietal lobe, Nature. 411 (2001) 950–953.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Campbell, D.N. Sharp, M.T. Harrison, R.G. Denning, A.J. Turberfield, Fabrication of photonic crystals for the visible spectrum by holographic lithography, Nature. 404 (2000) 53–56.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T.M. Moe, J.E. Chubb, Liberating Learning, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2009.
An edited book
M. Munir, ed., Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Chauchefoin, A. Sauvent, Technological Rent: The Key for Water Services Regulation, in: G. Schneier-Madanes (Ed.), Globalized Water: A Question of Governance, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2014: pp. 63–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Separation and Purification Technology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Ceres Is Shown In Most Stunning Detail Ever, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation Competition: Proposed Domestic Airline Alliances Raise Serious Issues, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
R.S. Sever, A Quantitative Descriptive Study Using the Theoretical Domains Framework to Investigate and Compare the Psychotropic Medication Prescribing Behavior of Primary Care Prescribers, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Pols, Down East Downers, New York Times. (2015) BR7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSeparation and Purification Technology
AbbreviationSep. Purif. Technol.
ISSN (print)1383-5866
ScopeFiltration and Separation
Analytical Chemistry

Other styles