How to format your references using the Sensing and Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sensing and Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hall, K. B. (2014). Molecular biology: Protein binding cannot subdue a lively RNA. Nature, 506(7488), 303–304.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scully, M. O., & Svidzinsky, A. A. (2009). Physics. The super of superradiance. Science (New York, N.Y.), 325(5947), 1510–1511.
A journal article with 3 authors
Shen, P.-C., Lin, M.-S., & Lin, C.-F. (2014). Environmentally benign technology for efficient warm-white light emission. Scientific reports, 4, 5307.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Shen, D., Bai, M., Tang, R., Xu, B., Ju, X., Pestell, R. G., & Achilefu, S. (2013). Dual fluorescent molecular substrates selectively report the activation, sustainability and reversibility of cellular PKB/Akt activity. Scientific reports, 3, 1697.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Furmston, M. (2012). Powell-Smith and Furmston’s Building Contract Casebook. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Johnson, C., Ciesielski, V., Correia, J., & Machado, P. (Eds.). (2016). Evolutionary and Biologically Inspired Music, Sound, Art and Design: 5th International Conference, EvoMUSART 2016, Porto, Portugal, March 30 -- April 1, 2016, Proceedings (1st ed. 2016., Vol. 9596). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ramírez, M. L., Farnochi, M. C., & Chulze, S. N. (2013). Ecophysiology of Fusarium graminearum Main Pathogen Associated to Fusarium Head Blight in Latin America. In T. M. Alconada Magliano & S. N. Chulze (Eds.), Fusarium Head Blight in Latin America (pp. 45–55). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sensing and Imaging.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, February 18). Alien Star Passed Through Our Solar System 70,000 Years Ago. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2016). Information Technology: OMB and Agencies Need to Focus Continued Attention on Implementing Reform Law (No. GAO-16-672T). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Madapatha, S. A. (2015). Energy efficient hierarchical wireless routing protocol (EEHW routing protocol) (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrman, J. (2017, February 6). Full Disclosure. New York Times, p. MM11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSensing and Imaging
AbbreviationSens. Imaging
ISSN (print)1557-2064
ISSN (online)1557-2072
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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