How to format your references using the Sensing and Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sensing and Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Weissman, P. (2015). Planetary science: Sink holes and dust jets on comet 67P. Nature, 523(7558), 42–43.
A journal article with 2 authors
Davidson, A. J., & Zon, L. I. (2003). Biomedicine. Love, honor, and protect (your liver). Science (New York, N.Y.), 299(5608), 835–837.
A journal article with 3 authors
Simon, P., Gogotsi, Y., & Dunn, B. (2014). Materials science. Where do batteries end and supercapacitors begin? Science (New York, N.Y.), 343(6176), 1210–1211.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Yang-Hartwich, Y., Gurrea-Soteras, M., Sumi, N., Joo, W. D., Holmberg, J. C., Craveiro, V., … Mor, G. (2014). Ovulation and extra-ovarian origin of ovarian cancer. Scientific reports, 4, 6116.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Yalaoui, A., Chehade, H., Yalaoui, F., & Amodeo, L. (2012). Optimization of Logistics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Skolnik, N. S., Clouse, A. L., & Woodward, J. A. (Eds.). (2013). Sexually Transmitted Diseases: A Practical Guide for Primary Care (2nd ed. 2013.). Totowa, NJ: Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
AL-Hussaini, E. K., & Ahsanullah, M. (2015). Family of Exponentiated Burr Type XII Distributions. In M. Ahsanullah (Ed.), Exponentiated Distributions (pp. 103–122). Paris: Atlantis Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sensing and Imaging.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, January 23). Asteroids Might Camouflage Themselves With Material From Elsewhere. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Information Technology: Agencies Need to Improve the Accuracy and Reliability of Investment Information (No. GAO-06-250). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yaceczko, S. D. (2017). A Telehealth Nutrition Manual for an Online Intensive Behavioral Weight Management Program (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Eligon, J. (2017, September 27). Protests Start a Dialogue, But About What, Exactly? New York Times, p. A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSensing and Imaging
AbbreviationSens. Imaging
ISSN (print)1557-2064
ISSN (online)1557-2072
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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