How to format your references using the Sensing and Imaging citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Sensing and Imaging. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reid, I. N. (2002). Brown dwarfs. Failed stars or overachieving planets? Science (New York, N.Y.), 296(5576), 2154–2155.
A journal article with 2 authors
Knauth, L. P., & Kennedy, M. J. (2009). The late Precambrian greening of the Earth. Nature, 460(7256), 728–732.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kim, H. K., Hanson, G. W., & Geller, D. A. (2013). Chemistry. Are gold clusters in RF fields hot or not? Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6131), 441–442.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dai, Z., Xu, L., Duan, G., Li, T., Zhang, H., Li, Y., … Cai, W. (2013). Fast-response, sensitivitive and low-powered chemosensors by fusing nanostructured porous thin film and IDEs-microheater chip. Scientific reports, 3, 1669.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Promislow, S. D. (2010). Fundamentals of Actuarial Mathematics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Hamm, I., Seitz, H., & Werding, M. (Eds.). (2008). Demographic Change in Germany: The Economic and Fiscal Consequences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Huang, Z., Li, Q., & Ding, H. (2013). Kinematic Influence Coefficient and Kinematics Analysis. In Q. Li & H. Ding (Eds.), Theory of Parallel Mechanisms (pp. 135–162). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Sensing and Imaging.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2015, February 10). Bionic Leaf Uses Bacteria To Convert Sunlight Into Fuel. IFLScience. IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Aviation Security: Federal Efforts to Secure U.S.-Bound Air Cargo Are in the Early Stages and Could Be Strengthened (No. GAO-07-660). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Norman, C. L. (2015). Perceptions of non-traditional programs within Missouri school districts (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Becker, J. O., Apuzzo, M., & Goldman, A. (2017, July 8). Trump Team Met With Lawyer Tied to Kremlin Amid ’16 Race. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSensing and Imaging
AbbreviationSens. Imaging
ISSN (print)1557-2064
ISSN (online)1557-2072
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering

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