How to format your references using the Precambrian Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Precambrian Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Anbar, A.D., 2008. Oceans. Elements and evolution. Science 322, 1481–1483.
A journal article with 2 authors
Baldauf, D., Desimone, R., 2014. Neural mechanisms of object-based attention. Science 344, 424–427.
A journal article with 3 authors
Amari, T., Luciani, J.-F., Aly, J.-J., 2015. Small-scale dynamo magnetism as the driver for heating the solar atmosphere. Nature 522, 188–191.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Andrews, O.E., Cha, D.J., Wei, C., Patton, J.G., 2014. RNAi-mediated gene silencing in zebrafish triggered by convergent transcription. Sci. Rep. 4, 5222.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Montgomery, G.E., Schuch, H.C., 2007. GIS Data Conversion Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Rocha, Á., Correia, A.M., Adeli, H., Reis, L.P., Mendonça Teixeira, M. (Eds.), 2016. New Advances in Information Systems and Technologies, 1st ed. 2016. ed, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Tinós, R., Yang, S., 2007. Genetic Algorithms with Self-Organizing Behaviour in Dynamic Environments, in: Yang, S., Ong, Y.-S., Jin, Y. (Eds.), Evolutionary Computation in Dynamic and Uncertain Environments, Studies in Computational Intelligence. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 105–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Precambrian Research.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Galactic “Hot-Dog-Eating Competition” Lasts Hundreds Of Millions Of Years [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2009. Financial Management Systems: DHS Faces Challenges to Successfully Consolidating Its Existing Disparate Systems (No. GAO-10-76). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pitron, J.E., 2008. The influence of exemplary followership on organizational performance: A phenomenological approach (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, J., 2016. Outside The Bars. New York Times BR4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Anbar, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Anbar, 2008; Baldauf and Desimone, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Baldauf and Desimone, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Andrews et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titlePrecambrian Research
AbbreviationPrecambrian Res.
ISSN (print)0301-9268
ScopeGeochemistry and Petrology

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