How to format your references using the Seminars in Pediatric Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Pediatric Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blank S. Embrace failure to start up success. Nature. 2011;477(7363):133.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gilman SL, Glaze FE. History of science. “How science survived”--medieval manuscripts as fossils. Science. 2005;307(5713):1208-1209.
A journal article with 3 authors
Field J, Cronin A, Bridge C. Future fitness and helping in social queues. Nature. 2006;441(7090):214-217.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Faxén K, Gilderson G, Adelroth P, Brzezinski P. A mechanistic principle for proton pumping by cytochrome c oxidase. Nature. 2005;437(7056):286-289.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chu PP. RTL Hardware Design Using VHDL. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Chattopadhyay S. Electric Power Quality. (Mitra M, Sengupta S, eds.). Springer Netherlands; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Chehab EW, Braam J. Jasmonates in Plant Defense Responses. In: Witzany G, Baluška F, eds. Biocommunication of Plants. Signaling and Communication in Plants. Springer; 2012:67-88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Pediatric Surgery.

Blog post
Luntz S. Surgeons Go Through Toddler’s Liver To Replace Heart Valve. IFLScience. Published October 16, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Status of Efforts to Deal With Personnel Issues. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mayo J. Rates and factors associated with child maltreatment recurrence for children from birth to 5 years of age in Ventura County. Published online 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. From India, Bridal Baubles. New York Times. July 22, 2010:E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Pediatric Surgery
AbbreviationSemin. Pediatr. Surg.
ISSN (print)1055-8586
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

Other styles