How to format your references using the Journal of Pragmatics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Pragmatics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zaanen, J., 2009. Journal club. A theoretical physicist journeys to a hairy black hole’s horizon. Nature 462, 15.
A journal article with 2 authors
Peng, L., Mortensen, N.A., 2014. Plasmonic-cavity model for radiating nano-rod antennas. Sci. Rep. 4, 3825.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nguyen, T.D., Ehrenfreund, E., Vardeny, Z.V., 2012. Spin-polarized light-emitting diode based on an organic bipolar spin valve. Science 337, 204–209.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sharp, S.P., McGowan, A., Wood, M.J., Hatchwell, B.J., 2005. Learned kin recognition cues in a social bird. Nature 434, 1127–1130.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Allin, P., Hand, D.J., 2014. The Wellbeing of Nations. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Hagedorn, P., Spelsberg-Korspeter, G. (Eds.), 2014. Active and Passive Vibration Control of Structures, 1st ed, CISM International Centre for Mechanical Sciences. Springer, Vienna.
A chapter in an edited book
Betz, U.A.K., Camacho, N., Gerards, M., Stremersch, S., 2014. Grassroots Innovation: A Promising Innovation Paradigm for Pharmaceutical Companies, in: Ding, M., Eliashberg, J., Stremersch, S. (Eds.), Innovation and Marketing in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Emerging Practices, Research, and Policies, International Series in Quantitative Marketing. Springer, New York, NY, pp. 119–148.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Pragmatics.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Ten Things You Didn’t Know About Erections [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. School Meal Programs: Competitive Foods Are Widely Available and Generate Substantial Revenues for Schools (No. GAO-05-563). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bontrager, J.G., 2015. Characterization and Applications for A Polymerized DiaCEST Contrast Agent (Doctoral dissertation). University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J., 2017. A Brutal Season of Prison Siege. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zaanen, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Peng and Mortensen, 2014; Zaanen, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Peng and Mortensen, 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Sharp et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Pragmatics
AbbreviationJ. Pragmat.
ISSN (print)0378-2166
ScopeLanguage and Linguistics
Artificial Intelligence
Linguistics and Language

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