How to format your references using the International Journal of Spine Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Spine Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Remer LA. Atmospheric science. Just add aerosols. Science. 2014;344(6188):1089.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Davidson DJ, Andrews J. Ecology. Not all about consumption. Science. 2013;339(6125):1286-1287.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Davis SP, Finarelli JA, Coates MI. Acanthodes and shark-like conditions in the last common ancestor of modern gnathostomes. Nature. 2012;486(7402):247-250.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Nan T, Liu M, Ren W, Ye Z-G, Sun NX. Voltage control of metal-insulator transition and non-volatile ferroelastic switching of resistance in VOx/PMN-PT heterostructures. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5931.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Chiasson AD. Geothermal Heat Pump and Heat Engine Systems. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2016.
An edited book
1.
Schulsinger DA, ed. Kidney Stone Disease: Say NO to Stones! Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Salehi S, Anwar R, Hassan OH. Incorporation of Canon Lens Polishing Sludge in Stoneware: An Exploratory Study. In: Hassan OH, Abidin SZ, Anwar R, Kamaruzaman MF, eds. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Research of Arts, Design and Humanities (ISRADH 2014). Singapore: Springer; 2015:31-41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Spine Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Why You Should Never Put A Goldfish In A Park Pond … Or Down The Toilet. IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/why-you-should-never-put-goldfish-park-pond-or-down-toilet/. Published May 12, 2016. Accessed October 30, 2018.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. St. Louis Postal Data Center’s Administration of Accounts Payable. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1970.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Nauman T. Digital soil-landscape classification for soil survey using ASTER satellite and digital elevation data in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona. 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Brantley B. A Mythic Force of Anger, Raging in Wales. New York Times. May 17, 2017:C6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Spine Surgery
AbbreviationInt. J. Spine Surg.
ISSN (online)2211-4599
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

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