How to format your references using the International Journal of Spine Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Spine Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Pierrehumbert RT. Warming the world. Nature. 2004;432(7018):677.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Taylor WR, Lin K. Protein knots: A tangled problem. Nature. 2003;421(6918):25.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Marteau TM, Hollands GJ, Fletcher PC. Changing human behavior to prevent disease: the importance of targeting automatic processes. Science. 2012;337(6101):1492-1495.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Turelli P, Mangeat B, Jost S, Vianin S, Trono D. Inhibition of hepatitis B virus replication by APOBEC3G. Science. 2004;303(5665):1829.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Candy JV. Model-Based Signal Processing. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1.
Toulouevski YN. Electric Arc Furnace with Flat Bath: Achievements and Prospects. (Zinurov IY, ed.). Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Burnett L, Sugiyama H, Washburn C, Bieber A, Chandler DE. Allurin: Exploring the Activity of a Frog Sperm Chemoattractant in Mammals. In: Sawada H, Inoue N, Iwano M, eds. Sexual Reproduction in Animals and Plants. Springer Japan; 2014:31-48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Spine Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Luntz S. Total Solar Eclipse To Darken Skies Above Europe March 20th. IFLScience.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Review of Contract Award for Management of National Center for Research in Vocational Education. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1983.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Dias J. Factors Associated with Poor Oral Health among Older Adults. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach; 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Rohan T. Head Games. New York Times. October 1, 2015:B15.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Spine Surgery
AbbreviationInt. J. Spine Surg.
ISSN (online)2211-4599
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

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