How to format your references using the International Journal of Spine Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Spine Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Walsh CA. Peter Huttenlocher (1931-2013). Nature. 2013;502(7470):172.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Rafii S, Lyden D. Cancer. A few to flip the angiogenic switch. Science. 2008;319(5860):163-164.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Ball LT, Lloyd-Jones GC, Russell CA. Gold-catalyzed direct arylation. Science. 2012;337(6102):1644-1648.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Pacaud R, Brocard E, Lalier L, Hervouet E, Vallette FM, Cartron P-F. The DNMT1/PCNA/UHRF1 disruption induces tumorigenesis characterized by similar genetic and epigenetic signatures. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4230.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
English JF. The Global Future of English Studies. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
1.
McCool SF, Bosak K, eds. Reframing Sustainable Tourism. Vol 2. Springer Netherlands; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Jones S, Woglom JF. More on Nomos. In: Woglom JF, ed. On Mutant Pedagogies: Seeking Justice and Drawing Change in Teacher Education. SensePublishers; 2016:71-77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Spine Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Andrew E. Watch Tigers Frolic In A Pool After Being Rescued From Cages. IFLScience. Published April 30, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/tigers-frollick-pool-after-being-rescued-cages/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. COMPETES Reauthorization Act: Federal Loan Guarantees for Innovative Technologies in Manufacturing. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Ballard KJ. Frequent factors for psychiatric hospital readmission. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Kishkovsky S. Russia: Ministry Takes Aim at a Human Rights Group. New York Times. October 14, 2014:A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Spine Surgery
AbbreviationInt. J. Spine Surg.
ISSN (online)2211-4599
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

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