How to format your references using the International Journal of Spine Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Spine Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Smith A. Screening for drug discovery: the leading question. Nature. 2002;418(6896):453-459.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Boles LC, Lohmann KJ. True navigation and magnetic maps in spiny lobsters. Nature. 2003;421(6918):60-63.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Sun Q, Haynes KF, Zhou X. Differential undertaking response of a lower termite to congeneric and conspecific corpses. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1650.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1.
Murray JD, Karas BJ, Sato S, Tabata S, Amyot L, Szczyglowski K. A cytokinin perception mutant colonized by Rhizobium in the absence of nodule organogenesis. Science. 2007;315(5808):101-104.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Deschamps J-P, Bioul GJA, Sutter GD. Synthesis of Arithmetic Circuits. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
1.
Huang X, Xiang Y, Li K-C, eds. Green, Pervasive, and Cloud Computing: 11th International Conference, GPC 2016, Xi’an, China, May 6-8, 2016. Proceedings. Vol 9663. Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Stackowiak R, Licht A, Mantha V, Nagode L. Business Information Mapping for Big Data and Internet of Things. In: Licht A, Mantha V, Nagode L, eds. Big Data and the Internet of Things: Enterprise Information Architecture for a New Age. Apress; 2015:79-97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Spine Surgery.

Blog post
1.
Fang J. Prints From Duck-Billed Dino Herd Found in Alaska. IFLScience. Published July 4, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/prints-duck-billed-dino-herd-found-alaska/

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Uncertainties Surrounding IRS’ Fiscal Year 1992 Budget Request for Tax System Modernization. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Pearson D. A High-Level Fuzzy Logic Guidance System for an Unmanned Surface Vehicle (USV) Tasked to Perform an Autonomous Launch and Recovery (ALR) of an Unmanned Underwater Vehicle (UUV). Published online 2014.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
Sisario B. Bill Is Passed to Ban Bots That Ticket Scalpers Use. New York Times. December 9, 2016:B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Spine Surgery
AbbreviationInt. J. Spine Surg.
ISSN (online)2211-4599
ScopeOrthopedics and Sports Medicine
Surgery

Other styles