How to format your references using the Journal of Sustainable Tourism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sustainable Tourism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sodeoka, M. (2011). Chemistry. Efficient fluorination of organic molecules with chiral anions. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6063), 1651–1652.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gorkin, D. U., & Ren, B. (2014). Genetics: Closing the distance on obesity culprits. Nature, 507(7492), 309–310.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jeganathan, K. B., Malureanu, L., & van Deursen, J. M. (2005). The Rae1-Nup98 complex prevents aneuploidy by inhibiting securin degradation. Nature, 438(7070), 1036–1039.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Stockmar, M., Cloetens, P., Zanette, I., Enders, B., Dierolf, M., Pfeiffer, F., & Thibault, P. (2013). Near-field ptychography: phase retrieval for inline holography using a structured illumination. Scientific Reports, 3, 1927.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Chang, C. M. (2010). Service Systems Management and Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Schroeder, D., & Cook Lucas, J. (Eds.). (2013). Benefit Sharing: From Biodiversity to Human Genetics. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Spaccasassi, C., & Koutavas, V. (2014). Towards Efficient Abstractions for Concurrent Consensus. In J. McCarthy (Ed.), Trends in Functional Programming: 14th International Symposium, TFP 2013, Provo, UT, USA, May 14-16, 2013, Revised Selected Papers (pp. 76–90). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sustainable Tourism.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 13). Does A Mum’s Diet During Pregnancy Influence Her Baby’s Food Preferences? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Federal-Aid Highways: States Need Guidance on Sales or Leases of Real Property Purchased with Federal Funds (GAO-03-207). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Martinez, W. (2010). “Straight Talk” on preventing HIV program—a grant thesis project [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2014, February 17). Another Dutch Sweep Leaves Americans Baffled. New York Times, D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sodeoka, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Gorkin & Ren, 2014; Sodeoka, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gorkin & Ren, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Jeganathan et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Stockmar et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sustainable Tourism
AbbreviationJ. Sustain. Tour.
ISSN (print)0966-9582
ISSN (online)1747-7646
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Geography, Planning and Development

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