How to format your references using the Journal of Sustainable Tourism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sustainable Tourism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schadt, E. (2011). Genome-sequencing anniversary. First steps on a long road. Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6018), 691.
A journal article with 2 authors
Karbaschi, M., & Cooke, M. S. (2014). Novel method for the high-throughput processing of slides for the comet assay. Scientific Reports, 4, 7200.
A journal article with 3 authors
Richardson, A. R., Libby, S. J., & Fang, F. C. (2008). A nitric oxide-inducible lactate dehydrogenase enables Staphylococcus aureus to resist innate immunity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5870), 1672–1676.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Parmentier, E., Colleye, O., Fine, M. L., Frédérich, B., Vandewalle, P., & Herrel, A. (2007). Sound production in the clownfish Amphiprion clarkii. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5827), 1006.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Iacus, S. M. (2011). Option Pricing and Estimation of Financial Models with R. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Grigoletto, M., Lisi, F., & Petrone, S. (Eds.). (2013). Complex Models and Computational Methods in Statistics. Milano: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mehta, G., Deelman, E., Knowles, J. A., Chen, T., Wang, Y., Vöckler, J., … Matise, T. (2012). Enabling Data and Compute Intensive Workflows in Bioinformatics. In M. Alexander, P. D’Ambra, A. Belloum, G. Bosilca, M. Cannataro, M. Danelutto, … J. Weidendorfer (Eds.), Euro-Par 2011: Parallel Processing Workshops: CCPI, CGWS, HeteroPar, HiBB, HPCVirt, HPPC, HPSS, MDGS, ProPer, Resilience, UCHPC, VHPC, Bordeaux, France, August 29 – September 2, 2011, Revised Selected Papers, Part II (pp. 23–32). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sustainable Tourism.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2016, December 31). New Animatronic Cameras Deployed To Film Wildlife Like Never Before. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1994). Automated Welfare Systems: Historical Costs and Projections (No. AIMD-94-52FS). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cornelius, J. (2017). Five Minute Meditation Used to Impact Workplace Meetings (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Johnson, M. (2013, March 29). A Brief Resurrection. New York Times, p. MM50.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schadt, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Karbaschi & Cooke, 2014; Schadt, 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Karbaschi & Cooke, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Richardson, Libby, & Fang, 2008)
  • 6 or more authors: (Parmentier et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sustainable Tourism
AbbreviationJ. Sustain. Tour.
ISSN (print)0966-9582
ISSN (online)1747-7646
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Geography, Planning and Development

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