How to format your references using the Journal of Sustainable Tourism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sustainable Tourism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dyson, P. J. (2009). Journal club. A chemist highlights promising organometallic drugs. Nature, 458(7237), 389.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mellor, N., & Bishopp, A. (2014). Plant science. The innermost secrets of root development. Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6197), 622–623.
A journal article with 3 authors
Friis, E. M., Pedersen, K. R., & Crane, P. R. (2001). Fossil evidence of water lilies (Nymphaeales) in the Early Cretaceous. Nature, 410(6826), 357–360.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Emmerson, M. C., Solan, M., Emes, C., Paterson, D. M., & Raffaelli, D. (2001). Consistent patterns and the idiosyncratic effects of biodiversity in marine ecosystems. Nature, 411(6833), 73–77.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Free, M. L. (2015). CBT and Christianity. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Sirgy, M. J., Phillips, R., & Rahtz, D. R. (Eds.). (2009). Community Quality-of-Life Indicators: Best Cases IV (1st ed., Vol. 2). Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim, S.-H., Bao, Y., Horan, E., Kim, M., & Cohen, A. S. (2015). Gauss–Hermite Quadrature in Marginal Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Item Parameters. In L. A. van der Ark, D. M. Bolt, W.-C. Wang, J. A. Douglas, & S.-M. Chow (Eds.), Quantitative Psychology Research: The 79th Annual Meeting of the Psychometric Society, Madison, Wisconsin, 2014 (pp. 43–58). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sustainable Tourism.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, January 22). Our Oceans Give New Insights On Elements Made In Supernovae. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2009). Next Generation Air Transportation System: Status of Transformation and Issues Associated with Midterm Implementation of Capabilities (GAO-09-479T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Betito, J.-J. H. (2012). Improving the well-being of Filipino homebound adults through religious involvement, education, and socialization: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, T. A. (1978, May 14). Solutions to the Urban Crisis. New York Times, New Jersey WeeklyNJ26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dyson, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Dyson, 2009; Mellor & Bishopp, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mellor & Bishopp, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Friis et al., 2001)
  • 6 or more authors: (Emmerson et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sustainable Tourism
AbbreviationJ. Sustain. Tour.
ISSN (print)0966-9582
ISSN (online)1747-7646
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Geography, Planning and Development

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