How to format your references using the Journal of Sustainable Tourism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sustainable Tourism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adam, D. (2001). Plans for GM livestock fail the poor. Nature, 411(6836), 403.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gavrilets, S., & Losos, J. B. (2009). Adaptive radiation: contrasting theory with data. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5915), 732–737.
A journal article with 3 authors
Paraje, G., Sadana, R., & Karam, G. (2005). Public health. Increasing international gaps in health-related publications. Science (New York, N.Y.), 308(5724), 959–960.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kraft, M. L., Weber, P. K., Longo, M. L., Hutcheon, I. D., & Boxer, S. G. (2006). Phase separation of lipid membranes analyzed with high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5795), 1948–1951.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Moll, W., & Moll, A. (2011). Schallschutz im Wohnungsbau. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Kleinman, K. (2005). Mies van der Rohe The Krefeld Villas (L. V. Duzer, Ed.). Princeton Archit. Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Katowitz, W. R., & Katowitz, J. A. (2010). Orbitofacial Neurofibromatosis 1: Current Medical and Surgical Management. In R. F. Guthoff & J. A. Katowitz (Eds.), Oculoplastics and Orbit: Aesthetic and Functional Oculofacial Plastic Problem-Solving in the 21st Century (pp. 79–94). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sustainable Tourism.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2015, November 15). This Is The Message We Have Sent To Aliens. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1998). Mass Transit: FTA’s New Starts Funding Criteria (RCED-98-189R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Quashie, Z. (2017). Issues with Care Provided by Direct Care Workers: A Case Study [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Clarey, C. (2017, January 30). At 74, a Champion Who Won’t Concede. New York Times, B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adam, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Adam, 2001; Gavrilets & Losos, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gavrilets & Losos, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Paraje et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kraft et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sustainable Tourism
AbbreviationJ. Sustain. Tour.
ISSN (print)0966-9582
ISSN (online)1747-7646
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles