How to format your references using the Journal of Sustainable Tourism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sustainable Tourism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Riordan, M. (2001). The suspense of strangeness. Nature, 409(6819), 457.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lively, C. M., & Dybdahl, M. F. (2000). Parasite adaptation to locally common host genotypes. Nature, 405(6787), 679–681.
A journal article with 3 authors
Farkas, I., Helbing, D., & Vicsek, T. (2002). Mexican waves in an excitable medium. Nature, 419(6903), 131–132.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Rembold, M., Loosli, F., Adams, R. J., & Wittbrodt, J. (2006). Individual cell migration serves as the driving force for optic vesicle evagination. Science (New York, N.Y.), 313(5790), 1130–1134.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Smith, R. E., Carraher, E., & DeLisle, P. (2017). Leading Collaborative Architectural Practice. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Ramon, J., & Denis, L. J. (Eds.). (2007). Prostate Cancer (Vol. 175). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Mallikarjuna, K., Sushma, N. J., & Deva Prasad Raju, B. (2013). Novel, Fast, Bio-Derivatized Sonochemical Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles by Using Piper betle Leaf Broth as a Reducing and Capping Agent. In P. K. Giri, D. K. Goswami, & A. Perumal (Eds.), Advanced Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Advanced Nanomaterials and Nanotechnology, Dec 8-10, 2011, Guwahati, India (pp. 41–49). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sustainable Tourism.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J. (2017, May 12). Long Duration Spaceflight Dramatically Decreases Your Ability To Do Exercise. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). NOAA Fleet: Responses to Post-Hearing Questions (GGD-99-60R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Warren, K. L. (2014). Agents of change: A new role for learners in online workplace training [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barry, E., & Kramer, A. E. (2012, February 5). In Biting Cold, Protesters Pack the Center of Moscow to Rally Against Putin. New York Times, A8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Riordan, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Lively & Dybdahl, 2000; Riordan, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lively & Dybdahl, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Farkas et al., 2002)
  • 6 or more authors: (Rembold et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sustainable Tourism
AbbreviationJ. Sustain. Tour.
ISSN (print)0966-9582
ISSN (online)1747-7646
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Geography, Planning and Development

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