How to format your references using the Journal of Sustainable Tourism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of Sustainable Tourism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Blaxter, M. (2010). Genetics. Revealing the dark matter of the genome. Science (New York, N.Y.), 330(6012), 1758–1759.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wade, J., & Wood, B. J. (2001). The Earth’s “missing” niobium may be in the core. Nature, 409(6816), 75–78.
A journal article with 3 authors
Saalmann, Y. B., Pigarev, I. N., & Vidyasagar, T. R. (2007). Neural mechanisms of visual attention: how top-down feedback highlights relevant locations. Science (New York, N.Y.), 316(5831), 1612–1615.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kanzow, T., Cunningham, S. A., Rayner, D., Hirschi, J. J.-M., Johns, W. E., Baringer, M. O., Bryden, H. L., Beal, L. M., Meinen, C. S., & Marotzke, J. (2007). Observed flow compensation associated with the MOC at 26.5 degrees N in the Atlantic. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5840), 938–941.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Guinot, V. (2010). Wave Propagation in Fluids. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Burkhardt, C. E. (2006). Topics in Atomic Physics (J. J. Leventhal, Ed.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Richards, H. (2013). Influence and Incentives in Financial Institution Supervision. In A. J. Kellermann, J. de Haan, & F. de Vries (Eds.), Financial Supervision in the 21st Century (pp. 73–102). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of Sustainable Tourism.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, December 23). Veritasium Ventures To Some Of The Most Radioactive Places on Earth. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2006). Troops-To-Teachers: Program Brings More Men and Minorities to the Teaching Workforce, but Education Could Improve Management to Enhance Results (GAO-06-265). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sugawara, Y. (2013). When the Spaniels conquered Central America: Academic English and first year composition instruction [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, July 4). To Keep Cespedes Fit: Add Water, Stir, and Hope. New York Times, B6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Blaxter, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Blaxter, 2010; Wade & Wood, 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wade & Wood, 2001)
  • Three authors: (Saalmann et al., 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kanzow et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of Sustainable Tourism
AbbreviationJ. Sustain. Tour.
ISSN (print)0966-9582
ISSN (online)1747-7646
ScopeTourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management
Geography, Planning and Development

Other styles