How to format your references using the Seminars in Orthodontics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Orthodontics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lambers JHR. Ecology. Extinction risks from climate change. Science. 2015;348(6234):501-502.
A journal article with 2 authors
Thiel PA, Dubois JM. Quasicrystals. Electrons in a strange sea. Nature. 2000;406(6796):570-571, 573.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kashlinsky A, Odenwald S, Hogan CJ. Looking behind the stars. Science. 2000;289(5477):246-247.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bouillon S, Yambélé A, Gillikin DP, et al. Contrasting biogeochemical characteristics of the Oubangui River and tributaries (Congo River basin). Sci Rep. 2014;4:5402.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
CCPS. Safe Design and Operation of Process Vents and Emission Control Systems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Shiffman MA, Di Giuseppe A, eds. Cosmetic Surgery: Art and Techniques. Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Stanilov K. The restructuring of non-residential uses in the post-socialist metropolis. In: Stanilov K, ed. The Post-Socialist City: Urban Form and Space Transformations in Central and Eastern Europe after Socialism. The GeoJournal Library. Springer Netherlands; 2007:73-99.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Orthodontics.

Blog post
Andrew D. Turkish Lake Has Turned Blood Red. IFLScience. Published July 24, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Opportunities for Improving Cash Management Practices, Regional Finance and Data Processing Center, Paris, France. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1972.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Amin RM. Detecting Targeted Malicious Email through Supervised Classification of Persistent Threat and Recipient Oriented Features. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO. 70 Years Ago. New York Times. May 13, 2016:C25.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Orthodontics
AbbreviationSemin. Orthod.
ISSN (print)1073-8746

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