How to format your references using the Seminars in Orthodontics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Orthodontics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Brody H. Biomaterials. Nature. 2015;519(7544):S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Outten CE, O’Halloran TV. Femtomolar sensitivity of metalloregulatory proteins controlling zinc homeostasis. Science. 2001;292(5526):2488-2492.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kagawa F, Miyagawa K, Kanoda K. Unconventional critical behaviour in a quasi-two-dimensional organic conductor. Nature. 2005;436(7050):534-537.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kohl J, Babayan BM, Rubinstein ND, et al. Functional circuit architecture underlying parental behaviour. Nature. 2018;556(7701):326-331.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rumelhard C, Algani C, Billabert A-L. Microwave Photonic Links. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Broekmans MATM, ed. Proceedings of the 10th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy (ICAM). Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Billington J, Vanit-Anunchai S, Gallasch GE. Parameterised Coloured Petri Net Channel Models. In: Jensen K, Billington J, Koutny M, eds. Transactions on Petri Nets and Other Models of Concurrency III. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer; 2009:71-97.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Orthodontics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Death Of A Landscape: Why Have Thousands Of Trees Dropped Dead In New South Wales? IFLScience. Published October 15, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Strong Leadership and Effective Partnerships Needed to Mitigate Risks. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jahan M. A policy to protect hoarders: An analysis of Fair Housing Amendments Act, 1988. Published online 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L. L.I.R.R. Safety Campaign Under Way. New York Times. August 12, 2007:LI2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Orthodontics
AbbreviationSemin. Orthod.
ISSN (print)1073-8746

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