How to format your references using the Seminars in Orthodontics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Orthodontics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schmidt B. Perspective: if not funding then teaching. Nature. 2014;511(7510):S81.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tanaka KD, Ueda K. Horsfield’s hawk-cuckoo nestlings simulate multiple gapes for begging. Science. 2005;308(5722):653.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dubilier N, McFall-Ngai M, Zhao L. Microbiology: Create a global microbiome effort. Nature. 2015;526(7575):631-634.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Huber C, Eisenreich W, Hecht S, Wächtershäuser G. A possible primordial peptide cycle. Science. 2003;301(5635):938-940.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sharkh SM, Abusara MA, Orfanoudakis GI, Hussain B. Power Electronic Converters for Microgrids. John Wiley & Sons, Singapore Pte. Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Schalley CA, Vögtle F, Dötz KH, eds. Templates in Chemistry II: -/-. Vol 249. Springer; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Fichter K, Beucker S. Hands-On Methods for Developing Innovation Communities. In: Fichter K, Beucker S, eds. Innovation Communities: Teamworking of Key Persons - A Success Factor in Radical Innovation. Springer; 2012:269-326.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Orthodontics.

Blog post
Andrew D. Parasitic Flies, Zombified Ants, Predator Beetles – Insect Drama On Mexican Coffee Plantations. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Research and Development: Funding of Jet Aircraft Engines for Fiscal Years 1984-1988. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sherwin PR. The disconnection between high school and college: A study of retention of students who are at risk of leaving college before completing a degree. Published online 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Baker P, Shear MD. To President, Human Rights Concerns Are Often a Barrier to Trade. New York Times. May 21, 2017:A9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Orthodontics
AbbreviationSemin. Orthod.
ISSN (print)1073-8746

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