How to format your references using the Seminars in Orthodontics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Orthodontics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Subbaraman N. Public health: A burning issue. Nature. 2014;513(7517):S16-7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Krueger AB, Stone AA. Psychology and economics. Progress in measuring subjective well-being. Science. 2014;346(6205):42-43.
A journal article with 3 authors
Clark DA, Mitra PP, Wang SS. Scalable architecture in mammalian brains. Nature. 2001;411(6834):189-193.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nasrin F, Rahman MA, Masuda A, Ohe K, Takeda JI, Ohno K. HnRNP C, YB-1 and hnRNP L coordinately enhance skipping of human MUSK exon 10 to generate a Wnt-insensitive MuSK isoform. Sci Rep. 2014;4:6841.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhang PG, Chan T. The Chinese Yuan. John Wiley & Sons (Asia) Pte. Ltd.; 2011.
An edited book
Pokorski M, ed. Respiratory Regulation - Clinical Advances. Vol 755. Springer Netherlands; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Aspray W, Royer G, Ocepek MG. Food Policy During the Depression and the Second World War: FDR’s New Deal Legislation and Eleanor Roosevelt’s Bully Pulpit. In: Royer G, Ocepek MG, eds. Formal and Informal Approaches to Food Policy. SpringerBriefs in Food, Health, and Nutrition. Springer International Publishing; 2014:85-111.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Orthodontics.

Blog post
Andrew E. Do Periods Really Make Women Moody? IFLScience. Published September 29, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer Operations: FAA Needs to Implement an Effective Capacity Management Program. U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tornes IE. Topics in the Physics of Underdamped Josephson Systems. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University; 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M. Drug-Testing Company Tied to N.C.A.A. Stirs Criticism. New York Times. January 6, 2013:SP1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Orthodontics
AbbreviationSemin. Orthod.
ISSN (print)1073-8746

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