How to format your references using the Seminars in Orthodontics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Orthodontics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Marris E. On high alert. Nature. 2010;466(7304):S2-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Duret L, Galtier N. Comment on “Human-specific gain of function in a developmental enhancer.” Science. 2009;323(5915):714; author reply 714.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bergquist DC, Williams FM, Fisher CR. Longevity record for deep-sea invertebrate. Nature. 2000;403(6769):499-500.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bachtold A, Hadley P, Nakanishi T, Dekker C. Logic circuits with carbon nanotube transistors. Science. 2001;294(5545):1317-1320.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prud’homme R. Flows and Chemical Reactions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Tsakanov V, Wiedemann H, eds. Brilliant Light in Life and Material Sciences. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Levitan MA, Lavrushin YA. Geologic-Paleoecological Events of the Late Pleistocene in the Northern-Siberian Lowland and Taimyr Peninsula. In: Lavrushin YA, ed. Sedimentation History in the Arctic Ocean and Subarctic Seas for the Last 130 Kyr. Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009:37-41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Orthodontics.

Blog post
Fang J. Different Monkey Species Can Understand One Another’s “Languages.” IFLScience. Published April 30, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Technology Development: New DOD Space Science and Technology Strategy Provides Basis for Optimizing Investments, but Future Versions Need to Be More Robust. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hester ET. Impact of geomorphic structures on hyporheic exchange, temperature, and ecological processes in streams. 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. King of Shish Kabob (With Mother-in-Law’s Help). New York Times. July 25, 2010:NJ11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Orthodontics
AbbreviationSemin. Orthod.
ISSN (print)1073-8746

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