How to format your references using the Neurocomputing citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Neurocomputing. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Shubik, RETROSPECTIVE. John Forbes Nash Jr. (1928-2015), Science. 348 (2015) 1324.
A journal article with 2 authors
A.S. Freeman, J.E. Byers, Divergent induced responses to an invasive predator in marine mussel populations, Science. 313 (2006) 831–833.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Kormendy, R. Bender, M.E. Cornell, Supermassive black holes do not correlate with galaxy disks or pseudobulges, Nature. 469 (2011) 374–376.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B. Macho, S. Brancorsini, G.M. Fimia, M. Setou, N. Hirokawa, P. Sassone-Corsi, CREM-dependent transcription in male germ cells controlled by a kinesin, Science. 298 (2002) 2388–2390.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P.E. Mix, Introduction to Nondestructive Testing, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2004.
An edited book
J.J. Park, L.T. Yang, C. Lee, eds., Future Information Technology: 6th International Conference, FutureTech 2011, Loutraki, Greece, June 28-30, 2011, Proceedings, Part I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
M.K. Bhowmik, K.J. Kennedy, Dropout Ethnic Minority Young People, in: K.J. Kennedy (Ed.), ‘Out of School’ Ethnic Minority Young People in Hong Kong, Springer, Singapore, 2016: pp. 115–151.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Neurocomputing.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Vaginal Bacteria Play Crucial Role In HIV Transmission, IFLScience. (2016).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Transportation Security Administration: TSA Executive Attrition Has Declined, but Better Information Is Needed on Reasons for Leaving and Executive Hiring Process, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
L.M. Robinson, Using Time-Resolved Photoluminescence Spectroscopy to Examine Exciton Dynamics in II-VI Semiconductor Nanostructures, Doctoral dissertation, University of Cincinnati, 2001.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Feeney, Glorifying the Chickpea, New York Times. (2011) NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleNeurocomputing
ISSN (print)0925-2312
ScopeArtificial Intelligence
Computer Science Applications
Cognitive Neuroscience

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