How to format your references using the Geoscience Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscience Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pormann PE (2015) Interdisciplinarity: Inside Manchester’s “arts lab.” Nature 525:318–319
A journal article with 2 authors
Medema JP, Vermeulen L (2011) Microenvironmental regulation of stem cells in intestinal homeostasis and cancer. Nature 474:318–326
A journal article with 3 authors
Ferguson NM, Donnelly CA, Anderson RM (2001) Transmission intensity and impact of control policies on the foot and mouth epidemic in Great Britain. Nature 413:542–548
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Pierce-Shimomura JT, Faumont S, Gaston MR, et al (2001) The homeobox gene lim-6 is required for distinct chemosensory representations in C. elegans. Nature 410:694–698

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Le Bodic G (2005) Mobile Messaging Technologies and Services. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Gause WC, Artis D (eds) (2016) The Th2 Type Immune Response in Health and Disease: From Host Defense and Allergy to Metabolic Homeostasis and Beyond, 1st ed. 2016. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Faller M (2012) Plato’s Pythagorean Cosmos: Order and Chaos in the Intelligence of Natural Design. In: Swan L, Gordon R, Seckbach J (eds) Origin(s) of Design in Nature: A Fresh, Interdisciplinary Look at How Design Emerges in Complex Systems, Especially Life. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp 59–85

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscience Letters.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Skin Patch Powers Electronics Using Muscle Movements. In: IFLScience. https://www.iflscience.com/technology/skin-patch-powers-electronics-using-muscle-movements/. Accessed 30 Oct 2018

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) FCC: Maritime Communications. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Builes AJ (2015) Inferring Function: A Study of Three Prehistoric Structures in El Pital, Puerto López, Manabí, Ecuador. Doctoral dissertation, Florida Atlantic University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M, Lehren AW (2014) Modified Training for Children Stirs New Debates. New York Times B14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pormann 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Medema and Vermeulen 2011; Pormann 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Medema and Vermeulen 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Pierce-Shimomura et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscience Letters
AbbreviationGeosci. Lett.
ISSN (online)2196-4092
Scope

Other styles