How to format your references using the Geoscience Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscience Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gilbert N (2011) Local benefits: The seeds of an economy. Nature 474:S18-9
A journal article with 2 authors
Joseph SB, Swanstrom R (2014) HIV/AIDS. A fitness bottleneck in HIV-1 transmission. Science 345:136–137
A journal article with 3 authors
Tuch BB, Li H, Johnson AD (2008) Evolution of eukaryotic transcription circuits. Science 319:1797–1799
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Shi Y, Zhang Y, Zhao F, et al (2014) Acetylcholine serves as a derepressor in Loperamide-induced Opioid-Induced Bowel Dysfunction (OIBD) in zebrafish. Sci Rep 4:5602

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zelterman D (2005) Discrete Distributions: Applications in the Health Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Mahmood Z (ed) (2014) Cloud Computing: Challenges, Limitations and R&D Solutions. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Trinci M, Sessa B, Menichini G, et al (2015) Abdominal Trauma. In: Miele V, Trinci M (eds) Imaging Trauma and Polytrauma in Pediatric Patients. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 65–100

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscience Letters.

Blog post
Andrew E (2016) Why You Shouldn’t Wrap Your Food In Aluminum Foil Before Cooking It. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1986) University Finances: Research Revenues and Expenditures. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Finnegan RJ (2010) Information food webs: A quantitative inquiry using a biological food web methodology. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Detrick B (2017) The Drift. New York Times D6

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gilbert 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Gilbert 2011; Joseph and Swanstrom 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Joseph and Swanstrom 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Shi et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscience Letters
AbbreviationGeosci. Lett.
ISSN (online)2196-4092

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