How to format your references using the Geoscience Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscience Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Théry C (2015) Cancer: Diagnosis by extracellular vesicles. Nature 523:161–162
A journal article with 2 authors
Vilotijevic I, Jamison TF (2007) Epoxide-opening cascades promoted by water. Science 317:1189–1192
A journal article with 3 authors
Verhagen JH, Herfst S, Fouchier RAM (2015) Infectious disease. How a virus travels the world. Science 347:616–617
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lu M-X, Cao S-S, Du Y-Z, et al (2013) Diapause, signal and molecular characteristics of overwintering Chilo suppressalis (Insecta: Lepidoptera: Pyralidae). Sci Rep 3:3211

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Mohos FÁ (2017) Confectionery and Chocolate Engineering. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Unger H, Kyamaky K, Kacprzyk J (eds) (2012) Autonomous Systems: Developments and Trends. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Garcke J, Griebel M, Thess M (2010) Data Mining for the Category Management in the Retail Market. In: Grötschel M, Lucas K, Mehrmann V (eds) Production Factor Mathematics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 81–92

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscience Letters.

Blog post
Hale T (2017) Yep, That Viral Video Of A Shark Attacking A Porn Star Was Bullshit. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1981) The Federal Interest in Legislative-Administrative Relations in the States. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cleveland JD (2014) A comparative study of genetic diversities among exploited flatfishes of the California Slope with emphasis on Dover sole (Microstomus pacificus). Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K (2008) To the City, From The Country. New York Times NJ11

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Théry 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Vilotijevic and Jamison 2007; Théry 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vilotijevic and Jamison 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Lu et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscience Letters
AbbreviationGeosci. Lett.
ISSN (online)2196-4092

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