How to format your references using the Geoscience Letters citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Geoscience Letters. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Griffith CA (2014) Solar system: Not just a storm in a teacup. Nature 514:40–41
A journal article with 2 authors
Belloc E, Méndez R (2008) A deadenylation negative feedback mechanism governs meiotic metaphase arrest. Nature 452:1017–1021
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaczmarczyk A, Vorholt JA, Francez-Charlot A (2014) Synthetic vanillate-regulated promoter for graded gene expression in Sphingomonas. Sci Rep 4:6453
A journal article with 5 or more authors
McAdam AJ, Greenwald RJ, Levin MA, et al (2001) ICOS is critical for CD40-mediated antibody class switching. Nature 409:102–105

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shunmugaperumal T (2010) Biofilm Eradication and Prevention. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Anderson E (2016) The Changing Dynamics of Bisexual Men’s Lives: Social Research Perspectives. Springer International Publishing, Cham
A chapter in an edited book
Prékopa A (2011) Probability Distribution Problems Concerning Stochastic Programming Problems. In: Finetti B de (ed) Mathematical Optimiation in Economics. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 195–221

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Geoscience Letters.

Blog post
Luntz S (2016) Hypersonic Test Flight Brings High-Speed Travel Dream Closer To Reality. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) Year 2000 Computing Crisis: Continuing Risks of Disruption to Social Security, Medicare, and Treasury Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roy R (2013) “Jagoron: Awakening” to Gender in Non Governmental Organizations in Contemporary Bengal. Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK (2003) World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Mandatory Military Service. New York Times A8

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Griffith 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Belloc and Méndez 2008; Griffith 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Belloc and Méndez 2008)
  • Three or more authors: (McAdam et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleGeoscience Letters
AbbreviationGeosci. Lett.
ISSN (online)2196-4092

Other styles