How to format your references using the Seminars in Immunopathology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Immunopathology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alvarez M (2007) Time for a change. Nature 445:682
A journal article with 2 authors
Rakoff-Nahoum S, Comstock LE (2014) Immunology: Starve a fever, feed the microbiota. Nature 514:576–577
A journal article with 3 authors
Sánchez I, Mahlke C, Yuan J (2003) Pivotal role of oligomerization in expanded polyglutamine neurodegenerative disorders. Nature 421:373–379
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Tanaka K, Mukae N, Dewar H, et al (2005) Molecular mechanisms of kinetochore capture by spindle microtubules. Nature 434:987–994

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Papadimitriou GI, Tsimoulas PA, Obaidat MS, Pomportsis AS (2005) Multiwavelength Optical LANs. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Curry GL (2011) Manufacturing Systems Modeling and Analysis. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Tashjian RZ (2015) Rotator Cuff Tear in Athletes: Part I. Pathophysiology. In: Park J-Y (ed) Sports Injuries to the Shoulder and Elbow. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 51–56

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Immunopathology.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) From Creepy Clowns To The Dancing Plague – When Phobias Are Contagious. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2007) Motor Carrier Safety: Preliminary Information on Challenges to Ensuring the Integrity of Drug Testing Programs. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Odom SA (2017) Electronic health records: Overcoming obstacles to improve acceptance and utilization for mental health clinicians. Doctoral dissertation, Capella University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly D (1996) Books in Brief: FICTION. New York Times 718

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Immunopathology
AbbreviationSemin. Immunopathol.
ISSN (print)1863-2297
ISSN (online)1863-2300
Immunology and Allergy

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