How to format your references using the International Journal of Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Forrest LR. Structural biology. (Pseudo-)symmetrical transport. Science. 2013 Jan 25;339(6118):399–401.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kinnamon SC, Reynolds SD. Cell biology. Using taste to clear the air(ways). Science. 2009 Aug 28;325(5944):1081–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pearson PN, Foster GL, Wade BS. Atmospheric carbon dioxide through the Eocene-Oligocene climate transition. Nature. 2009 Oct 22;461(7267):1110–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
St Maurice M, Reinhardt L, Surinya KH, Attwood PV, Wallace JC, Cleland WW, et al. Domain architecture of pyruvate carboxylase, a biotin-dependent multifunctional enzyme. Science. 2007 Aug 24;317(5841):1076–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fiske JR, Fiske CA. The Big Book of Benefit Auctions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Rüb U. The Neuropathology of Huntington’s Disease: Classical Findings, Recent Developments and Correlation to Functional Neuroanatomy. 1st ed. 2015. Vonsattel JPG, Heinsen H, Korf H-W, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. (Advances in Anatomy, Embryology and Cell Biology; vol. 217).
A chapter in an edited book
Sánchez-Anguix V, Esparcia S, Argente E, García-Fornes A, Julián V. Collaborative Information Extraction for Adaptive Recommendations in a Multiagent Tourism Recommender System. In: Demazeau Y, Dignum F, Corchado JM, Pérez JB, editors. Advances in Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems: 8th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems (PAAMS 2010). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010. p. 35–40. (Kacprzyk J, editor. Advances in Intelligent and Soft Computing).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Fang J. Heart-Regenerating Cells Found in Coronary Arteries [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Space Station: Actions Under Way to Manage Cost, but Significant Challenges Remain. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2002 Jul. Report No.: GAO-02-735.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Marmolejo R. Drop-in center for homeless veteran families: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Leland J. Dance Moves, Everywhere. New York Times. 2017 Apr 7;MB8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Forrest 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Kinnamon and Reynolds 2009; Forrest 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kinnamon and Reynolds 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (St Maurice et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationInt. J. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)1201-9712
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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