How to format your references using the International Journal of Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton R. Older women scientists fight USGS over layoffs. US Geological Survey. Nature. 2000 Mar 16;404(6775):219.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liu SQ, Cull-Candy SG. Synaptic activity at calcium-permeable AMPA receptors induces a switch in receptor subtype. Nature. 2000 May 25;405(6785):454–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stott L, Timmermann A, Thunell R. Southern Hemisphere and deep-sea warming led deglacial atmospheric CO2 rise and tropical warming. Science. 2007 Oct 19;318(5849):435–8.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Sebastiani P, Solovieff N, Puca A, Hartley SW, Melista E, Andersen S, et al. Retraction. Science. 2011 Jul 22;333(6041):404.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beg D, Kuhlmann U, Davaine L, Braun B. Design of Plated Structures. Berlin, Germany: Ernst & Sohn Verlag für Architektur und technische Wissenschaften GmbH & Co. KG; 2012.
An edited book
Szewczyk R, Zieliński C, Kaliczyńska M, editors. Progress in Automation, Robotics and Measuring Techniques: Volume 3 Measuring Techniques and Systems. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015. (Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing; vol. 352).
A chapter in an edited book
Ukraintseva SV, Arbeev KG, Akushevich I, Kulminski AM, Stallard E, Yashin AI. Factors That May Increase Vulnerability to Cancer and Longevity in Modern Human Populations. In: Stallard E, Land KC, editors. Biodemography of Aging: Determinants of Healthy Life Span and Longevity. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2016. p. 113–41. (The Springer Series on Demographic Methods and Population Analysis).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E. If A Solar Plant Uses Natural Gas, Is It Still Green? [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Evaluations of Even Start Family Literacy Program Effectiveness. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000 Mar. Report No.: HEHS-00-58R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Schulz JL. Factors Affecting Prey Availability and Habitat Usage of Wintering Piping Plovers (Charadrius melodus) in Coastal Louisiana [Doctoral dissertation]. [ Lafayette, LA]: University of Louisiana; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley B. What Would a Modern Sophocles Do? Perhaps He Would Pucker Up. New York Times. 2016 Oct 28;C5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Dalton 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Dalton 2000; Liu and Cull-Candy 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Liu and Cull-Candy 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Sebastiani et al. 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationInt. J. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)1201-9712
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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