How to format your references using the International Journal of Infectious Diseases citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Infectious Diseases. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gottesman D. Physics. Jump-starting quantum error correction with entanglement. Science. 2006 Oct 20;314(5798):427–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Barber MF, Elde NC. Nutritional immunity. Escape from bacterial iron piracy through rapid evolution of transferrin. Science. 2014 Dec 12;346(6215):1362–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Loudet JC, Barois P, Poulin P. Colloidal ordering from phase separation in a liquid-crystalline continuous phase. Nature. 2000 Oct 5;407(6804):611–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
De Luca A, Caraveo PA, Mereghetti S, Tiengo A, Bignami GF. A long-period, violently variable X-ray source in a young supernova remnant. Science. 2006 Aug 11;313(5788):814–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jelaska D. Gears and Gear Drives. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Stillwell J. The Four Pillars of Geometry. Axler S, Ribet KA, editors. New York, NY: Springer; 2005. (Undergraduate Texts in Mathematics).
A chapter in an edited book
Edwards KL, Clarke G. SimObesity: Combinatorial Optimisation (Deterministic) Model. In: Tanton R, Edwards K, editors. Spatial Microsimulation: A Reference Guide for Users. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2013. p. 69–85.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Infectious Diseases.

Blog post
Andrew E. Tropical Forests Will Still Exist In 2100 – But They Will Be A Sorry Sight [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: Uneven Implementation of Wireless Enhanced 911 Raises Prospect of Piecemeal Availability for Years to Come. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003 Nov. Report No.: GAO-04-55.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Trinooson TE. CFD investigations of a round jet with coil insert in crossflow [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly M. Words And Deeds; The Guinier Affair Aggravates Clinton’s Credibility Problem. New York Times. 1993 Jun 6;41.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gottesman 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Gottesman 2006; Barber and Elde 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Barber and Elde 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (De Luca et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Infectious Diseases
AbbreviationInt. J. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)1201-9712
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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