How to format your references using the Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nienow P. Geoscience: The plumbing of Greenland’s ice. Nature 2014;514:38–39.
A journal article with 2 authors
Matthews HD, Solomon S. Atmosphere. Irreversible does not mean unavoidable. Science 2013;340:438–439.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wilson AH, Shirey SB, Carlson RW. Archaean ultra-depleted komatiites formed by hydrous melting of cratonic mantle. Nature 2003;423:858–861.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Panchal V, Lartsev A, Manzin A, et al. Visualisation of edge effects in side-gated graphene nanodevices. Sci Rep 2014;4:5881.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anandharamakrishnan C, Ishwarya SP. Spray Drying Techniques for Food Ingredient Encapsulation. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
Botti V. ANEMONA: A Mulit-agent Methodology for Holonic Manufacturing Systems. (Giret A, ed.). London: Springer; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Leavitt SD, St. Clair LL. Bio-monitoring in Western North America: What Can Lichens Tell Us About Ecological Disturbances? In: Upreti DK, Divakar PK, Shukla V, et al., eds. Recent Advances in Lichenology: Modern Methods and Approaches in Biomonitoring and Bioprospection, Volume 1. New Delhi: Springer India; 2015:119–138.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Davis J. Incredibly Preserved Frozen Cave Lions Found In Siberia. IFLScience 2015. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. FAA Computer Security: Actions Needed to Address Critical Weaknesses That Jeopardize Aviation Operations. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
DeReus DL. The correlation between career anchors and satisfaction - a comparative analysis of multiple affiliations under a single organizational structure. 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly DA. Buy an ID Card and Forget About the Line. New York Times 2006:56.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGastroenterology
ISSN (print)0016-5085
ISSN (online)1528-0012

Other styles