How to format your references using the Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garwood R. Uprooting researchers can drive them out of science. Nature 2014;510:313.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mattick JS, Gagen MJ. Mathematics/computation. Accelerating networks. Science 2005;307:856–858.
A journal article with 3 authors
Yang R, Willett SD, Goren L. In situ low-relief landscape formation as a result of river network disruption. Nature 2015;520:526–529.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
LaHaye MD, Suh J, Echternach PM, et al. Nanomechanical measurements of a superconducting qubit. Nature 2009;459:960–964.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rapaport H. The Literary Theory Toolkit. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2011.
An edited book
Eischen EE, Long L, Pries R, et al. eds. Directions in Number Theory: Proceedings of the 2014 WIN3 Workshop. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
McNeeley MF, Itani M, Rohrmann CA. Diagnostic Fluoroscopy for Imaging Crohn’s Disease. In: Fichera A, Krane MK, eds. Crohn’s Disease: Basic Principles. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015:65–74.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gastroenterology.

Blog post
Luntz S. Study Suggests That Humans Are Still Evolving. IFLScience 2016. Available at: [Accessed October 30, 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Highway Infrastructure: FHWA Has Acted to Disclose the Limitations of Its Environmental Review Analysis. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Parsons JR. Throwing a wrench in the translational machinery: Discovery of RNA ligands by fluorescence techniques. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Caba S. Free Stay in Luxury! (Just Feed the Fish). New York Times 2015:TR7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGastroenterology
ISSN (print)0016-5085
ISSN (online)1528-0012

Other styles