How to format your references using the Gastroenterology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Gastroenterology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1.
Friedman M. Paleontology. Emerging onto a tangled bank. Science 2009;324:341–342.
A journal article with 2 authors
1.
Kulkarni RN, Kahn CR. Molecular biology. HNFs--linking the liver and pancreatic islets in diabetes. Science 2004;303:1311–1312.
A journal article with 3 authors
1.
Kersten S, Desvergne B, Wahli W. Roles of PPARs in health and disease. Nature 2000;405:421–424.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
1.
Moyer AE, Zheng W, Johnson EA, et al. Melanosomes or microbes: testing an alternative hypothesis for the origin of microbodies in fossil feathers. Sci Rep 2014;4:4233.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1.
Bouchet O. Wireless Optical Communications. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2012.
An edited book
1.
Shirali S. Multivariable Analysis. (Vasudeva HL, ed.). London: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1.
Zembaty Z, Rossi A, Spagnoli A. Estimation of Rotational Ground Motion Effects on the Bell Tower of Parma Cathedral. In: Zembaty Z, De Stefano M, eds. Seismic Behaviour and Design of Irregular and Complex Civil Structures II. Geotechnical, Geological and Earthquake Engineering. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016:35–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Gastroenterology.

Blog post
1.
O`Callaghan J. Climate Change Is Real But Good Says Putin Because We’re All Doomed Anyway. IFLScience 2017. Available at: https://www.iflscience.com/environment/climate-change-is-real-but-good-says-putin-because-were-all-doomed-anyway/ [Accessed October 30, 2018].

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1.
Government Accountability Office. Runway Safety: Progress on Reducing Runway Incursions Impeded by Leadership, Technology, and Other Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1.
Durak D. Improving forecasting accuracy of electric switch demand using artificial neural network and aggregate customer clustering techniques. 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1.
MERCED MJ de la. Ex-Google Venture Capitalist Is Opening Fund of His Own. New York Times 2017:B4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleGastroenterology
AbbreviationGastroenterology
ISSN (print)0016-5085
ISSN (online)1528-0012
ScopeGastroenterology

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