How to format your references using the Seminars in Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Brody, Human papillomavirus, Nature. 488 (2012) S1.
A journal article with 2 authors
S.B. Jacobsen, Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA., Geochemistry. How old is planet Earth?, Science. 300 (2003) 1513–1514.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Knigge, M.J. Coe, P. Podsiadlowski, Two populations of X-ray pulsars produced by two types of supernova, Nature. 479 (2011) 372–375.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.M.R. de Almeida, R. Yockteng, J. Schnable, E.R. Alvarez-Buylla, M. Freeling, C.D. Specht, Co-option of the polarity gene network shapes filament morphology in angiosperms, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6194.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety, Guidelines for Use of Vapor Cloud Dispersion Models, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 1996.
An edited book
C. Petrie, T. Margaria, H. Lausen, M. Zaremba, eds., Semantic Web Services Challenge: Results from the First Year, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Krause, C. Langhirt, A. Sterff, B. Pehlke, M. Döring, External Data Access, in: C. Langhirt, A. Sterff, B. Pehlke, M. Döring (Eds.), SharePoint 2010 as a Development Platform, Apress, Berkeley, CA, 2010: pp. 255–294.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Immunology.

Blog post
J. Davis, Gene-Editing Technique CRISPR-Cas9 May Be Causing Hundreds Of Genetic Mutations, IFLScience. (2017). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Transportation Services: Better Dissemination and Oversight of DOT’s Guidance Could Lead to Improved Access for Limited English-Proficient Populations (Spanish Version), U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.M. Whittle, The genomic distribution and function of NFI and histone variant H2A.Z during Caenorhabditis elegans development, Doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
E. Rosenberg, Louise Rennison, 64, Young-Adult Author, New York Times. (2016) D8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Immunology
AbbreviationSemin. Immunol.
ISSN (print)1044-5323
Immunology and Allergy

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