How to format your references using the Seminars in Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
M. Elvis, Greater observatories: A midlife crisis for X-ray astronomy, Nature. 486 (2012) 181–182.
A journal article with 2 authors
G.L. Thomas, R.E. Thorne, Night-time predation by Steller sea lions, Nature. 411 (2001) 1013.
A journal article with 3 authors
G. Lin, N. Xu, R. Xi, Paracrine Wingless signalling controls self-renewal of Drosophila intestinal stem cells, Nature. 455 (2008) 1119–1123.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A. Strong, S. Chisholm, C. Miller, J. Cullen, Ocean fertilization: time to move on, Nature. 461 (2009) 347–348.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
N. Pascoe, Reliability Technology, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2011.
An edited book
J. Drexl, H. Grosse Ruse-Khan, S. Nadde-Phlix, eds., EU Bilateral Trade Agreements and Intellectual Property: For Better or Worse?, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Gupta, S. Kamali, A. López-Ortiz, On Advice Complexity of the k-server Problem under Sparse Metrics, in: T. Moscibroda, A.A. Rescigno (Eds.), Structural Information and Communication Complexity: 20th International Colloquium, SIROCCO 2013, Ischia, Italy, July 1-3, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2013: pp. 55–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Immunology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, The Very Useful Art Of Assessing A Supervolcano Without Making It Erupt, IFLScience. (2015). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Federal Research: Lessons Learned from the Pilot Technology Access Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1995.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Constantine, Supportive services for transitional and emancipated youth: A grant proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
K. Feeney, Freshness City Dwellers Hunger For, New York Times. (2008) NJ11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Immunology
AbbreviationSemin. Immunol.
ISSN (print)1044-5323
Immunology and Allergy

Other styles