How to format your references using the Seminars in Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
H. Weissert, Deciphering methane’s fingerprint, Nature. 406 (2000) 356–357.
A journal article with 2 authors
M.E. Santos, W. Salzburger, Evolution. How cichlids diversify, Science. 338 (2012) 619–621.
A journal article with 3 authors
R. Lan, J.T.S. Irvine, S. Tao, Synthesis of ammonia directly from air and water at ambient temperature and pressure, Sci. Rep. 3 (2013) 1145.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D. Shalitin, H. Yang, T.C. Mockler, M. Maymon, H. Guo, G.C. Whitelam, C. Lin, Regulation of Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2 by blue-light-dependent phosphorylation, Nature. 417 (2002) 763–767.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
A. El Hami, B. Radi, Uncertainty and Optimization in Structural Mechanics, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013.
An edited book
A. Masoudi-Nejad, Next Generation Sequencing and Sequence Assembly: Methodologies and Algorithms, Springer, New York, NY, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
H. Zhang, Y. Li, Jordan Triple Multiplicative Maps on the Symmetric Matrices, in: Z. Gong, X. Luo, J. Chen, J. Lei, F.L. Wang (Eds.), Web Information Systems and Mining: International Conference, WISM 2011, Taiyuan, China, September 24-25, 2011, Proceedings, Part I, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011: pp. 27–34.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Immunology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Researchers Image What They Believe To Be Smallest Life Possible, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Higher Education: Tuition Increasing Faster Than Household Income and Public Colleges’ Costs, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Zepeda, Housing First assertive community treatment program for adults with schizophrenia and co-occurring substance abuse: A grant proposal, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M.M. Chapman, B. Vlasic, Strong Domestic Sales Help Lift Chrysler’s Results, New York Times. (2012) B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Immunology
AbbreviationSemin. Immunol.
ISSN (print)1044-5323
Immunology and Allergy

Other styles