How to format your references using the Seminars in Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.C. Catling, Comment on “A hydrogen-rich early Earth atmosphere,” Science. 311 (2006) 38; author reply 38.
A journal article with 2 authors
I.B. Levitan, S.M. Cibulsky, Biochemistry. TRP ion channels--two proteins in one, Science. 293 (2001) 1270–1271.
A journal article with 3 authors
R.W. Howarth, A. Ingraffea, T. Engelder, Natural gas: Should fracking stop?, Nature. 477 (2011) 271–275.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
B. Panganiban, B. Qiao, T. Jiang, C. DelRe, M.M. Obadia, T.D. Nguyen, A.A.A. Smith, A. Hall, I. Sit, M.G. Crosby, P.B. Dennis, E. Drockenmuller, M. Olvera de la Cruz, T. Xu, Random heteropolymers preserve protein function in foreign environments, Science. 359 (2018) 1239–1243.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
M. Minenna, The Incomplete Currency: The Future of the Euro and Solutions for the Eurozone, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
G. Ricci, ed., Teoria dei numeri, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
I. Goldstein, J. Silberstein, Physiology of Female Genital Sexual Arousal, in: J.P. Mulhall, L. Incrocci, I. Goldstein, R. Rosen (Eds.), Cancer and Sexual Health, Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, 2011: pp. 51–68.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Immunology.

Blog post
E. Andrew, Four Myths About Allergies You Thought Were True – But Aren’t, IFLScience. (2015).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Need for Active Alcohol Public Education Program, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1978.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
M.A. Reig, Cross-Dialectal Variability in Propositional Anaphora: A Quantitative and Pragmatic Study of Null Objects in Mexican and Peninsular Spanish, Doctoral dissertation, Ohio State University, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Hollander, Fame on the Half Shell, New York Times. (2009) CY1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Immunology
AbbreviationSemin. Immunol.
ISSN (print)1044-5323
Immunology and Allergy

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