How to format your references using the Journal of the Egyptian Society of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Journal of the Egyptian Society of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Sorenson E. Gates of opportunity. Nature 2007;447:502–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Steig EJ, Wolfe AP. Atmospheric science. Sprucing up Greenland. Science 2008;320:1595–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Chabanov AA, Stoytchev M, Genack AZ. Statistical signatures of photon localization. Nature 2000;404:850–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Zaban B, Liu W, Jiang X, Nick P. Plant cells use auxin efflux to explore geometry. Sci Rep 2014;4:5852.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Cicek V. Cathodic Protection. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
[1]
Schaller A, editor. Induced Plant Resistance to Herbivory. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
De Waele M, Van Schil PE. Remediastinoscopy. In: Zieliński M, Rami-Porta R, editors. The Transcervical Approach in Thoracic Surgery, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014, p. 37–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Journal of the Egyptian Society of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery.

Blog post
[1]
Luntz S. Why Did This Mysterious Ancient Chinese Civilization Disappear? IFLScience 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/earthquake-blamed-ancient-chinese-civilization-s-disappearance/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Contract Management: Few Competing Proposals for Large DOD Information Technology Orders. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Hawkins SH. Lung CT Radiomics: An Overview of Using Images as Data. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Greenhouse L. The Justices Have Cellphones, Too. New York Times 2014:A27.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleJournal of the Egyptian Society of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery
ISSN (print)1110-578X
Scope

Other styles