How to format your references using the Seminars in Colon and Rectal Surgery citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Seminars in Colon and Rectal Surgery. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Anderson PW. A Gross-Pitaevskii treatment for supersolid helium. Science. 2009;324(5927):631-632.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shim M, Guyot-Sionnest P. n-type colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals. Nature. 2000;407(6807):981-983.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bai G, Zhang Y, Hao J. Tuning of near-infrared luminescence of SrTiO3:Ni2+ thin films grown on piezoelectric PMN-PT via strain engineering. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5724.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yuan YJ, Yu ZT, Liu XJ, Cai JG, Guan ZJ, Zou ZG. Hydrogen photogeneration promoted by efficient electron transfer from iridium sensitizers to colloidal MoS2 catalysts. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4045.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lundberg U, Cooper CL. The Science of Occupational Health. Wiley-Blackwell; 2010.
An edited book
Faber C, Farkas G, van der Geer G, eds. K3 Surfaces and Their Moduli. Vol 315. Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Runyan CN. Essential Competencies of Medical Personnel in Integrated Care Settings. In: O’Donohue WT, James L, eds. The Primary Care Toolkit: Practical Resources for the Integrated Behavioral Care Provider. Springer; 2009:31-39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Seminars in Colon and Rectal Surgery.

Blog post
Fang J. Scientists Find One Of The Last Ever Lakes On Mars. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Corps of Engineers: Effects of Restrictions on Corps’ Hopper Dredges Should Be Comprehensively Analyzed. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2003.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lefebvre K. Racial Prejudice, Individualism, and Political Identity: Understanding the Forty-Year Trend of Anti-Welfare Spending Preferences. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. In 15 Hours, Submarine Kursk Is Raised From Sea Floor. New York Times. October 9, 2001:A7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleSeminars in Colon and Rectal Surgery
AbbreviationSemin. Colon Rectal Surg.
ISSN (print)1043-1489

Other styles