How to format your references using the International Journal of Disability, Development and Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for International Journal of Disability, Development and Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stephanopoulos, G. (2007). Challenges in engineering microbes for biofuels production. Science (New York, N.Y.), 315(5813), 801–804.
A journal article with 2 authors
Campbell, I. H., & O’Neill, H. S. C. (2012). Evidence against a chondritic Earth. Nature, 483(7391), 553–558.
A journal article with 3 authors
Long, J. C. S., Loy, F., & Morgan, M. G. (2015). Policy: Start research on climate engineering. Nature, 518(7537), 29–31.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Shin, J.-S., Ebersold, M., Pypaert, M., Delamarre, L., Hartley, A., & Mellman, I. (2006). Surface expression of MHC class II in dendritic cells is controlled by regulated ubiquitination. Nature, 444(7115), 115–118.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jones, G. F. (2010). Gravity-Driven Water Flow in Networks. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Stephanidis, C. (Ed.). (2005). Universal Access in Health Telematics: A Design Code of Practice (Vol. 3041). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Quintero, O. A., Moore, J. E., & Yengo, C. M. (2012). Basics of the Cytoskeleton: Myosins. In M. Kavallaris (Ed.), Cytoskeleton and Human Disease (pp. 73–100). Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for International Journal of Disability, Development and Education.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, June 18). Brown Bears Enjoy Oral Sex. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2007). Information Technology: DHS’s Human Capital Plan Is Largely Consistent with Relevant Guidance, but Improvements and Implementation Steps Are Still Needed (GAO-07-425). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nelson, A. F. (2014). Anxiety in the process of individuation. An in-depth psychological study [Doctoral dissertation]. Pacifica Graduate Institute.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M. (2014, January 30). Jump in Prostitution Arrests in Super Bowl Week. New York Times, B16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stephanopoulos, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Campbell & O’Neill, 2012; Stephanopoulos, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Campbell & O’Neill, 2012)
  • Three authors: (Long et al., 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Shin et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleInternational Journal of Disability, Development and Education
AbbreviationIntl. J. Disabil. Dev. Educ.
ISSN (print)1034-912X
ISSN (online)1465-346X
ScopeDevelopmental and Educational Psychology
Health(social science)
Health Professions (miscellaneous)

Other styles