How to format your references using the Semiconductor Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Semiconductor Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schulz E 2015 Organic chemistry: One catalyst, two reactions Nature 517 280–1
A journal article with 2 authors
Cuthbertson J D and MacMillan D W C 2015 The direct arylation of allylic sp(3) C-H bonds via organic and photoredox catalysis Nature 519 74–7
A journal article with 3 authors
Golding N L, Staff N P and Spruston N 2002 Dendritic spikes as a mechanism for cooperative long-term potentiation Nature 418 326–31
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Renard V T, Duchemin I, Niida Y, Fujiwara A, Hirayama Y and Takashina K 2013 Metallic behaviour in SOI quantum wells with strong intervalley scattering Sci. Rep. 3 2011

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lombard M 2009 SolidWorks® Administration Bible (Indianapolis, IN, USA: Wiley Publishing, Inc.)
An edited book
Li P and Wang X 2016 Ecological Migration, Development and Transformation: A Study of Migration and Poverty Reduction in Ningxia (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Lal A and Qadeer S 2013 Reachability Modulo Theories Reachability Problems: 7th International Workshop, RP 2013, Uppsala, Sweden, September 24-26, 2013 Proceedings Lecture Notes in Computer Science ed P A Abdulla and I Potapov (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer) pp 23–44

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Semiconductor Science and Technology.

Blog post
Andrew E 2014 Beer Waste Used To Make Bones IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1981 Efforts To Improve School Lunch Programs--Are They Paying Off? (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Monk K J 2014 Effects of distractors and force feedback on an aimed movement task in a CDTI environment Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Soloski A 2017 In Two Israeli Plays, Peace Is Forever Receding New York Times C3

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSemiconductor Science and Technology
AbbreviationSemicond. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0268-1242
ISSN (online)1361-6641
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles