How to format your references using the Semiconductor Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Semiconductor Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Connerney J 2013 Solar system: Saturn’s ring rain Nature 496 178–9
A journal article with 2 authors
Goddéris Y and Donnadieu Y 2008 Carbon cycling and snowball Earth Nature 456 E8; author reply E9-10
A journal article with 3 authors
Karunadasa H I, Chang C J and Long J R 2010 A molecular molybdenum-oxo catalyst for generating hydrogen from water Nature 464 1329–33
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Pfund C, Maidl Pribbenow C, Branchaw J, Miller Lauffer S and Handelsman J 2006 Professional skills. The merits of training mentors Science 311 473–4

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bartoszyǹski R and Niewiadomska-Bugaj M 2007 Probability and Statistical Inference, Second Edition (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Mehling H 2008 Heat and cold storage with PCM: An up to date introduction into basics and applications ed L F Cabeza (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Gurav S and Gurav N 2014 Herbal Drug Microscopy Indian Herbal Drug Microscopy ed S S Gurav and N S Gurav (New York, NY: Springer) pp 15–196

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Semiconductor Science and Technology.

Blog post
Hamilton K 2017 Sleep Deprivation Makes The Brain Go Into Overdrive And “Eat Itself’’” IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2012 Next Generation Air Transportation System: FAA Faces Implementation Challenges (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Constantine S 2013 Supportive services for transitional and emancipated youth: A grant proposal Doctoral dissertation (Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Robinson L 2011 By the Banks of the Tigris New York Times BR10

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSemiconductor Science and Technology
AbbreviationSemicond. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0268-1242
ISSN (online)1361-6641
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles