How to format your references using the Semiconductor Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Semiconductor Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Althorpe S C 2010 Chemistry. Setting the trap for reactive resonances Science 327 1460–1
A journal article with 2 authors
Yang T and Shadlen M N 2007 Probabilistic reasoning by neurons Nature 447 1075–80
A journal article with 3 authors
Tomoyasu Y, Wheeler S R and Denell R E 2005 Ultrabithorax is required for membranous wing identity in the beetle Tribolium castaneum Nature 433 643–7
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Del Negro C, Cappello A, Neri M, Bilotta G, Hérault A and Ganci G 2013 Lava flow hazards at Mount Etna: constraints imposed by eruptive history and numerical simulations Sci. Rep. 3 3493

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stewart R 2012 Plautus and Roman Slavery (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Li X, Kirley M, Zhang M, Green D, Ciesielski V, Abbass H, Michalewicz Z, Hendtlass T, Deb K, Tan K C, Branke J and Shi Y 2008 Simulated Evolution and Learning: 7th International Conference, SEAL 2008, Melbourne, Australia, December 7-10, 2008. Proceedings vol 5361 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Couvidat S 2011 Solar Oscillations: Current Trends The Sun, the Solar Wind, and the Heliosphere ed M P Miralles and J Sánchez Almeida (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands) pp 31–8

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Semiconductor Science and Technology.

Blog post
Andrew D 2016 How Planet Earth’s Ice-Skating Flamingos Collectively Get ‘In The Mood’ For Sex IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1996 Federal Research: Changes in Electricity-Related R&D Funding (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Brooks C E 2010 Action research: Interventions for helping leaders use groups to affect conflict between workforce generations Doctoral dissertation (Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow L 2007 After the Storm, a Sigh of Relief New York Times LI2

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSemiconductor Science and Technology
AbbreviationSemicond. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0268-1242
ISSN (online)1361-6641
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles