How to format your references using the Semiconductor Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Semiconductor Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bandfield J L 2007 High-resolution subsurface water-ice distributions on Mars Nature 447 64–7
A journal article with 2 authors
Fazleabas A T and Kim J J 2003 Development. What makes an embryo stick? Science 299 355–6
A journal article with 3 authors
Finn C A, Sisson T W and Deszcz-Pan M 2001 Aerogeophysical measurements of collapse-prone hydrothermally altered zones at Mount Rainier volcano Nature 409 600–3
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Audet P, Bostock M G, Christensen N I and Peacock S M 2009 Seismic evidence for overpressured subducted oceanic crust and megathrust fault sealing Nature 457 76–8

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Birinyi L 2013 The Master Trader (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Kozek M and Schirrer A 2015 Modeling and Control for a Blended Wing Body Aircraft: A Case Study (Cham: Springer International Publishing)
A chapter in an edited book
Veron J (charlie) E N 2011 Coral Taxonomy and Evolution Coral Reefs: An Ecosystem in Transition ed Z Dubinsky and N Stambler (Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands) pp 37–45

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Semiconductor Science and Technology.

Blog post
Andrew E 2013 Things in space that could kill us IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 2010 Students With Disabilities: More Information and Guidance Could Improve Opportunities in Physical Education and Athletics (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Richardson C 2005 Edgard Varèse and the Visual Avant-Garde: A Comparative Study of Intégrales and Works of Art by Marcel Duchamp Doctoral dissertation (Cincinnati, OH: University of Cincinnati)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S 2015 Joyful Puzzles of Home and Transition New York Times WE9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSemiconductor Science and Technology
AbbreviationSemicond. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0268-1242
ISSN (online)1361-6641
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles