How to format your references using the Semiconductor Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Semiconductor Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zeng N 2003 Atmospheric science. Drought in the Sahel Science 302 999–1000
A journal article with 2 authors
Hirsh A E and Fraser H B 2001 Protein dispensability and rate of evolution Nature 411 1046–9
A journal article with 3 authors
Weis P, Driesner T and Heinrich C A 2012 Porphyry-copper ore shells form at stable pressure-temperature fronts within dynamic fluid plumes Science 338 1613–6
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Ratzinger F, Haslacher H, Poeppl W, Hoermann G, Kovarik J J, Jutz S, Steinberger P, Burgmann H, Pickl W F and Schmetterer K G 2014 Azithromycin suppresses CD4(+) T-cell activation by direct modulation of mTOR activity Sci. Rep. 4 7438

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morri G and Mazza A 2014 Property Finance (Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd)
An edited book
Hart W E, Smith J E and Krasnogor N 2005 Recent Advances in Memetic Algorithms vol 166 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Costamagna F 2015 Regulating Public Services and International Investment Law Services of General Interest Beyond the Single Market: External and International Law Dimensions ed M Krajewski (The Hague: T.M.C. Asser Press) pp 77–109

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Semiconductor Science and Technology.

Blog post
Bedell-Pearce H 2017 We Might Be About To Ruin Sushi For You Forever IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1971 Need To Improve Policies and Procedures for Approving Grants Under the Emergency School Assistance Program (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Meier M R 2009 Exploring the effects of school calendars on student achievement Doctoral dissertation ( St. Charles, MO: Lindenwood University)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Landler M, Schmitt E and Gordon M R 2017 Businessmen Get a Say on Afghan War Strategy New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSemiconductor Science and Technology
AbbreviationSemicond. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0268-1242
ISSN (online)1361-6641
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles