How to format your references using the Semiconductor Science and Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Semiconductor Science and Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pockley P 2000 Tax blow leaves Australian science reeling Nature 405 387
A journal article with 2 authors
Jones W and Klin A 2013 Attention to eyes is present but in decline in 2-6-month-old infants later diagnosed with autism Nature 504 427–31
A journal article with 3 authors
Bánsági T Jr, Vanag V K and Epstein I R 2011 Tomography of reaction-diffusion microemulsions reveals three-dimensional Turing patterns Science 331 1309–12
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Belle M D C, Diekman C O, Forger D B and Piggins H D 2009 Daily electrical silencing in the mammalian circadian clock Science 326 281–4

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sharon M and Sharon M 2015 Graphene (Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.)
An edited book
Waring M J and Chaires J B 2005 DNA Binders and Related Subjects: -/- vol 253 (Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer)
A chapter in an edited book
Kim R and Albert L R 2015 Knowledge for Teaching Mathematics Category I: Mathematics Curriculum Knowledge Mathematics Teaching and Learning: South Korean Elementary Teachers’ Mathematical Knowledge for Teaching ed L R Albert (Cham: Springer International Publishing) pp 63–76

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Semiconductor Science and Technology.

Blog post
Hamilton K 2016 Psychologist On Dating: There Are No Rules Of Attraction When It Comes To Meeting Your Match IFLScience


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office 1986 Biotechnology: Analysis of Federally Funded Research (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office)

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Yanez A M 2010 Chicano and Black radical activism of the 1960s: A comparison between the Brown Berets and the Black Panther Party in California Doctoral dissertation (La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego)

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy M J O 2014 ‘John D. Ducks for Apples’ New York Times C30

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleSemiconductor Science and Technology
AbbreviationSemicond. Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)0268-1242
ISSN (online)1361-6641
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
Materials Chemistry
Condensed Matter Physics

Other styles