How to format your references using the IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R. J. Sawyer, “The abdication of Pope Mary III...or Galileo’s revenge,” Nature, vol. 406, no. 6791, p. 23, Jul. 2000.
A journal article with 2 authors
N. Huebsch and D. J. Mooney, “Inspiration and application in the evolution of biomaterials,” Nature, vol. 462, no. 7272, pp. 426–432, Nov. 2009.
A journal article with 3 authors
M. Lynch, B. Koskella, and S. Schaack, “Mutation pressure and the evolution of organelle genomic architecture,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5768, pp. 1727–1730, Mar. 2006.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
S. Banerjee et al., “Morphine induced exacerbation of sepsis is mediated by tempering endotoxin tolerance through modulation of miR-146a,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 1977, 2013.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. H. N. Laursen and J. Thorlund, Business Analytics for Managers. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2016.
An edited book
A. Herout, Real-Time Detection of Lines and Grids: By PClines and Other Approaches. London: Springer, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
M. Pelcat, S. Aridhi, J. Piat, and J.-F. Nezan, “A System-Level Architecture Model,” in Physical Layer Multi-Core Prototyping: A Dataflow-Based Approach for LTE eNodeB, S. Aridhi, J. Piat, and J.-F. Nezan, Eds. London: Springer, 2013, pp. 103–121.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics.

Blog post
E. Andrew, “What Is The Biggest Star In The Universe?,” IFLScience, Oct. 06, 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Aviation Security: TSA Has Completed Key Activities Associated with Implementing Secure Flight, but Additional Actions Are Needed to Mitigate Risks,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-09-292, May 2009.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
V. J. Gardina, “Analysis of LiDAR data for fluvial geomorphic change detection at a small Maryland stream,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Lee, “Connect the Blocks,” New York Times, p. D3, Jul. 11, 2013.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleIEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics
AbbreviationIEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.
ISSN (print)1077-260X
ScopeElectrical and Electronic Engineering
Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics

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