How to format your references using the Self and Identity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Self and Identity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sharp, T. (2006). Neuroscience. A new molecule to brighten the mood. Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5757), 45–46.
A journal article with 2 authors
Park, H.-J., & Friston, K. (2013). Structural and functional brain networks: from connections to cognition. Science (New York, N.Y.), 342(6158), 1238411.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xing, L., Li, X., & Snider, W. D. (2015). Neurodevelopment. “RASopathic” astrocytes constrain neural plasticity. Science (New York, N.Y.), 348(6235), 636–637.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Trabucchi, M., Briata, P., Garcia-Mayoral, M., Haase, A. D., Filipowicz, W., Ramos, A., … Rosenfeld, M. G. (2009). The RNA-binding protein KSRP promotes the biogenesis of a subset of microRNAs. Nature, 459(7249), 1010–1014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Linacre, A. M. T., & Tobe, S. S. (2013). Wildlife DNA Analysis. Oxford, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Domek, S., & Dworak, P. (Eds.). (2016). Theoretical Developments and Applications of Non-Integer Order Systems: 7th Conference on Non-Integer Order Calculus and Its Applications, Szczecin, Poland (1st ed. 2016, Vol. 357). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Pierce, R., & Stacey, K. (2011). Using Dynamic Geometry to Bring the Real World Into the Classroom. In L. Bu & R. Schoen (Eds.), Model-Centered Learning: Pathways to Mathematical Understanding Using GeoGebra (pp. 41–55). Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Self and Identity.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, March 14). Your Brain Is “Hard-Wired” To React Without Thinking. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Program Administration at the Atterbury Job Corps Center in Indiana (No. B-130515). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stangl, B. L. (2010). The mediation of cognitive task performance in post-menopausal women: An examination of the effects of DHEA upon cognition (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M. W. (2010, July 21). Social Security Loses $50 Million a Year in Benefit Overpayment. New York Times, p. A3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sharp, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Park & Friston, 2013; Sharp, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Park & Friston, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Xing, Li, & Snider, 2015)
  • 6 or more authors: (Trabucchi et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleSelf and Identity
AbbreviationSelf Identity
ISSN (print)1529-8868
ISSN (online)1529-8876
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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