How to format your references using the Self and Identity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Self and Identity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nilsson, J. (2004). Scientists and societies. Junior Faculty at the Karolinska Institute. Nature, 427(6973), 470.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lichtman, J. W., & Denk, W. (2011). The big and the small: challenges of imaging the brain’s circuits. Science (New York, N.Y.), 334(6056), 618–623.
A journal article with 3 authors
Reiner, J. W., Walker, F. J., & Ahn, C. H. (2009). Materials science. Atomically engineered oxide interfaces. Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5917), 1018–1019.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Randau, L., Münch, R., Hohn, M. J., Jahn, D., & Söll, D. (2005). Nanoarchaeum equitans creates functional tRNAs from separate genes for their 5’- and 3’-halves. Nature, 433(7025), 537–541.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Guyader, J.-L. (2013). Vibration in Continuous Media. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Robinson, P., Vogt, H., & Wagealla, W. (Eds.). (2005). Privacy, Security and Trust within the Context of Pervasive Computing (Vol. 780). Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Harsoula, M., Contopoulos, G., & Kalapotharakos, C. (2009). Orbital Structure in Barred Galaxies and the Role of Chaos. In G. Contopoulos & P. A. Patsis (Eds.), Chaos in Astronomy: Conference 2007 (pp. 53–61). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Self and Identity.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, March 3). Populations Of Giant Pandas Rebound in China. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1992). Motor Vehicle Regulations: Regulatory Cost Estimates Could Be Improved (RCED-92-110). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mills, J. (2017). Catherine of Siena: No Saint Is an Island [Doctoral dissertation]. Southern Illinois University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Herrman, J. (2017, August 12). The Land of Internet Subcultures. New York Times, A2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nilsson, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Lichtman & Denk, 2011; Nilsson, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Lichtman & Denk, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Reiner et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Randau et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleSelf and Identity
AbbreviationSelf Identity
ISSN (print)1529-8868
ISSN (online)1529-8876
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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