How to format your references using the Self and Identity citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Self and Identity. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Allan, V. (2014). Cell biology. One, two, three, cytoplasmic dynein is go! Science (New York, N.Y.), 345(6194), 271–272.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hoshi, E., & Tanji, J. (2000). Integration of target and body-part information in the premotor cortex when planning action. Nature, 408(6811), 466–470.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rohde, D. L. T., Olson, S., & Chang, J. T. (2004). Modelling the recent common ancestry of all living humans. Nature, 431(7008), 562–566.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Song, S. J., Seok, J. Y., Yoon, J. H., Kim, K. M., Kim, G. H., Lee, M. H., & Hwang, C. S. (2013). Real-time identification of the evolution of conducting nano-filaments in TiO2 thin film ReRAM. Scientific Reports, 3, 3443.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kitai, A. (2011). Principles of Solar Cells, LEDs and Diodes: The role of the PN junction. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Deved¿ic, V. (2009). Model Driven Engineering and Ontology Development (D. Djuric & D. Ga¿evic, Eds.). Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhou, J., Lo, A., Hao, J., & Niemegeers, I. (2010). A Multi-hop Aware Weighted Scheduling Mechanism for HSDPA and IEEE 802.11 Integrated Network. In E. Osipov, A. Kassler, T. M. Bohnert, & X. Masip-Bruin (Eds.), Wired/Wireless Internet Communications: 8th International Conference, WWIC 2010, Luleå, Sweden, June 1-3, 2010. Proceedings (pp. 40–51). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Self and Identity.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, September 16). Two New Materials Mimic Octopus-Like Camouflage. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Human Capital Legislative Proposals to NASA’s Fiscal Year 2003 Authorization Bill (GAO-03-264R). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kuls, M. (2012). Single item versus multiple items: An examination of validity and the impact of mood in measuring constructs [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, July 10). Once ‘All In,’ Mets Are More Than 10 Games Out at the All-Star Break. New York Times, D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Allan, 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Allan, 2014; Hoshi & Tanji, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hoshi & Tanji, 2000)
  • Three authors: (Rohde et al., 2004)
  • 6 or more authors: (Song et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleSelf and Identity
AbbreviationSelf Identity
ISSN (print)1529-8868
ISSN (online)1529-8876
ScopeGeneral Psychology

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